a focus towards service orientation, open standardsintegration, collaboration, and virtualization. One particular area of interest centers on the evolution of gridcomputing principles into the mainstream of distributedcomputing and Web services. In this paper, we focus our analysis on this evolution and the significance of achieving some form of standardization of grid-computing architecture principles. This paper presentsthe technology standards that are driving major gridinitiatives and explains in simple terms how thesestandards and technologies are aligned with the IBM ondemand business concepts. In addition, we discuss therecent Web services specifications related to state fullresources (i.e., resources whose behavior is defined withrespect to their underlying state) and how these standardsrelate to grid computing. We conclude with discussionsexploring major aspects of grid-computing adoptionmodels and some significant attributes that influence thetransformation, collaboration, and virtualization featuresof these models.
5. Grid as a Virtual Organization
(VO) is a dynamic group of individuals, groups, or organizations who define theconditions and rules for sharing resources. The conceptof the VO is the key to grid computing. All VOs sharesome characteristics and issues, including commonconcerns and requirements that may vary in size, scope,duration, sociology, and structure. The members of anyVO negotiate the sharing of resources based upon therules and conditions defined by the VO, and the membersthen share the resources in the VO's constructed resource pool.
6. Grid Computing Different fromDistributed Computing
Grid computing can be differentiated from almost alldistributed computing paradigms by this definingcharacteristic:
The essence of grid computing lies in theefficient and optimal utilization of a wide range of heterogeneous, loosely coupled resources in anorganization tied to sophisticated workload management capabilities or information virtualization.
(Anorganization can span multiple departments, physicallocations, and so on.)
7. Grid Architecture
A new architecture model and technology has beendeveloped for the establishment and management of cross-organizational resource sharing. This newarchitecture, called
, identifies the basiccomponents of a grid system. The grid architecturedefines the purpose and functions of its components,while indicating how these components interact with oneanother.
The main focus of the architecture is oninteroperability among resource providers and users inorder to establish the sharing relationships. Thisinteroperability, in turn, necessitates common protocolsat each layer of the architectural model, which leads tothe definition of a grid protocol architecture.
8. High Level Overview of Grid Computing
The most common description of
includes an analogy to a power grid. When you plug anappliance or other object requiring electrical power into areceptacle, you expect that there is power of the correctvoltage available, but the actual source of that power isnot known. Your local utility company provides theinterface into a complex network of generators and power sources and provides you with (in most cases) anacceptable quality of service for your energy demands.Rather than each house or neighborhood having to obtainand maintain its own generator of electricity, the power grid infrastructure provides a virtual generator. Thegenerator is highly reliable and adapts to the power needsof the consumers based on their demand.The vision of grid computing is similar. Once the proper kind of infrastructure is in place, a user will have accessto a virtual computer that is reliable and adaptable to theuser’s needs. This virtual computer will consist of manydiverse computing resources. But these individualresources will not be visible to the user, just as theconsumer of electric power is unaware of how their electricity is being generated. To reach this vision, theremust be standards for grid computing that will allow asecure and robust infrastructure to be built. Standardssuch as the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) andtools such as those provided by the Globus Toolkit provide the necessary framework. Initially, businesseswill build their own infrastructures (what we might callintra-grids), but over time, these grids will becomeinterconnected. This interconnection will be made possible by standards such as OGSA and the analogy of grid computing to the power grid will become real.
9. Types of Grids
Grid computing can be used in a variety of ways toaddress various kinds of application requirements. Often,grids are categorized by the type of solutions that they best address. The three primary types of grids aresummarized below. Of course, there are no hard boundaries between these grid types and often grids may be a combination of two or more of these. However, asyou consider developing applications that may run in agrid environment, remember that the type of gridenvironment that you will be using will affect many of your decisions.
9.1. Computational Grid