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Copper Reactions

Copper Reactions

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Published by Zenaida Lu
A scientific paper on the reactions of copper
A scientific paper on the reactions of copper

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Zenaida Lu on Dec 09, 2012
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02/04/2015

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Copper ReactionsMaria Zenaida B. LuCamille Anne M. Rivera
De La Salle University
 –
DasmariñasDasmariñas City, Cavite, Philippines
ABSTRACT
Copper is a chemical element which is known to be recyclable. A specific amount of copper wirewas subjected to a series of different reactions. Nitric acid was poured in a beaker with copper.When fumes were no longer being produced, distilled water then sodium hydroxide was added.The mixture was then boiled and filtered. The filtrate, upon adding sulfuric acid was dissolved anda zinc metal was added. The mixture was then heated, washed with methanol and acetone anddecanted after each washing. The yield was completely dried via water bath before weighing. Thepercentage yield was then computed. The experiment was successful for the yield was 94% of the original amount.
INTRODUCTION
Elements can be produced, extracted, and recycled using chemical reactions. Theoretically arecyclable element would have the same amount from the beginning of a series of chemical reactions tountil it ends. This is because the amount of element in the reagent would be present in the product of areaction. Though the amount of element from the beginning of an experiment like copper reactions shouldbe the same as its yield, it is not always the case. Several factors like filtration, decanting, and extractingtechniques, and incomplete reactions could cause alteration in the amount of proceeds.The reactions involved in the experiment are oxidation-reduction reactions, specificallydecomposition and displacement. Redox is when transfer of electrons or change of oxidation statesoccurs. Decomposition is when a compound breaks down into two or more compounds whiledisplacement (metal displacement in particular) is when an element replaces an ion or atom in acompound. Such reactions have helped in the scientific and industrial advancements. With the rightcombination of reactions, compounds can be created and elements can be extracted. Also, it is possibleto transport an element in a different physical state than in which it naturally occurs without lessening theamount of the element.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Pieces of copper wires with a mass of 0.50g were obtained and placed in a 250 mL beaker.4.0mL of 16M nitric acid (HNO
3
) were added under the hood to dissolve the copper wires. The beaker was swirled occasionally until no fumes were being produced. Distilled water was added filling the beaker up to its half. Afterwards, 30mL of 6M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was added to the reaction mixture. Themixture was boiled with 2 pieces of boiling chips. The boiled mixture was filtered using a filter paper. Thefiltrate was dissolved by adding 15mL of 6M sulfuric acid (
H
2
SO
4
). A sheet of zinc metal weighing 2g wasadded. The mixture was placed under the hood until the zinc metal completely reacted. The reactionmixture was then heated until no gas is being produced. The mixture was cooled in room temperature. Itwas then decanted after washing with 10mL methanol and 10mL acetone. A water bath was used tocompletely dry the solid.
 
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The initial mass of the pieces of copper wires is 0.50g.Solid copper reacts with nitric acid, becoming a blue solution of aqueous cupric nitrate and water,and nitrogen oxide, a brown, poisonous gas. The reaction is a combination of single displacementreaction and decomposition reaction, and is expressed as:
Cu
(s)
+ 4HNO
3 (aq)
 
Cu(NO
3
)
2 (aq)
+ 2NO
2 (g)
+ 2H
2
O
(l)
Cupric nitrate solution reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide and produces blue cupric hydroxideand aqueous sodium nitrate. The reaction involved is double displacement reaction.
Cu(NO
3
)
2 (aq)
+2NaOH
(aq)
 
→ Cu(OH)
2 (s)
+ 2NaNO
3 (aq)
Copper hydroxide and sodium nitrate mixture was heated forming copper oxide (the blackprecipitate) and water, with the following reaction called decomposition:
Cu(OH)
2
 
(s)
CuO
(s)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 The filtrate or the black precipitate, copper oxide (CuO), was obtained using a filter paper towhich sulfuric acid was added. Together they produce a blue mixture of copper sulfate and water, with thefollowing double displacement reaction:
CuO
(s)
+ H
2
SO
4 (aq)
 
→ CuSO
4 (aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
 
 A zinc metal, weighing 2g, was added to the obtained copper sulfate and water mixture. Whenthe zinc metal has completely disintegrated in the copper sulfate, it produces copper and zinc sulfate. Thereaction is called single displacement and expressed as:
CuSO
4 (aq)
+Zn
(s)
→ Cu
 
(s)
+ ZnSO
4 (aq)
 
 After cooling the copper to room temperature, washing it with methanol, decanting it, washing itwith acetone, decanting it again, and drying it through water bath, the pre-weighed 70.00g beaker withcopper was weighed. The mass of copper and beaker was 70.47g. The recovery mass of copper wascalculated by subtracting the mass of beaker from the mass of the beaker and recovered copper.
 
         
 
   
 
   
 The percent yield is calculated with ratio of the actual yield (mass of recovered copper) and thetheoretical yield (initial mass of copper wire), multiplied to 100.
        
 
  
 
 
 The percentage yield of copper is 94%.

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