purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher‘s famil
iaritywith the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes
two levels of exploratory studies. ―At the first level
is the discovery of the significant variable in the
situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.‖
Descriptive Study -
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplesttype of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the variouscharacteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at aclassification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to thedevelopment of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empiricalobservation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation.The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside theboundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social actionprogram.E.
Diagnostic Study -
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towardsdiscovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims atidentifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned withdiscovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requiresprior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the givenpopulation, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.F.
Evaluation Studies -
It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmentalprojects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the qualityand quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions requiredfor its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis.It is concerned also with change over time.G.
Action Research -
It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an actionprogramme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme,initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process,and post experimental evaluation.
Q2. How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be ableto identify research problems?
Answer The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requiresevaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria, which may be grouped into:
A. Internal Source -
The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him.Without interest and curiosity, he may not develop sustained perseverance. Even a smalldifficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. Interest in a problem depends
upon the researcher‘s educational background, experience, outlook and sensitivity.