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Automatización en Redes de Distribución: Equipos y Protocolos de Telecomando

Automatización en Redes de Distribución: Equipos y Protocolos de Telecomando

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Published by andres_arias_silva
El siguiente trabajo describe, desde el punto de vista de la automatización y control, las principales características de los equipos de telecomando, protocolos y sistemas de comunicación más utilizados en las redes de distribución eléctrica, dando una visión general sobre la implementación en futuras aplicaciones en Chile en redes inteligentes y generación distribuida. Finalmente se presentarán conclusiones sobre la importancia y rol que poseen estos equipos en los niveles de confiabilidad de un sistema de distribución y los beneficios a corto plazo para las empresas distribuidoras de energía eléctrica.
El siguiente trabajo describe, desde el punto de vista de la automatización y control, las principales características de los equipos de telecomando, protocolos y sistemas de comunicación más utilizados en las redes de distribución eléctrica, dando una visión general sobre la implementación en futuras aplicaciones en Chile en redes inteligentes y generación distribuida. Finalmente se presentarán conclusiones sobre la importancia y rol que poseen estos equipos en los niveles de confiabilidad de un sistema de distribución y los beneficios a corto plazo para las empresas distribuidoras de energía eléctrica.

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Published by: andres_arias_silva on Dec 09, 2012
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03/17/2013

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KOO
 — 
=?4 Mkt}ykiudkôb Oeëd}ykdg 7
 
 Yotunob
 ” 
Oe tkhukob}o }ygigjl motdykio% motmo oe vub}l mopkt}g mo eg gu}lng}kzgdkôb { dlb}yle% egt vykbdkvgeotdgygd}oyît}kdgt mo elt owukvlt mo }oeodlngbml% vyl}ldlelt {tkt}ongt mo dlnubkdgdkôb nçt u}kekzgmlt ob egt yomot momkt}ykiudkôb oeëd}ykdg% mgbml ubg pktkôb hoboyge tliyo egknveonob}gdkôb ob `u}uygt gvekdgdklbot ob Dckeo ob yomotkb}oekhob}ot { hoboygdkôb mkt}ykiukmg" @kbgenob}o to vyotob}gyçbdlbdeutklbot tliyo eg knvly}gbdkg { yle wuo vltoob ot}lt owukvltob elt bkpoeot mo dlb`kgikekmgm mo ub tkt}ong mo mkt}ykiudkôb { eltiobo`kdklt g dly}l vegzl vgyg egt onvyotgt mkt}ykiukmlygt mooboyhîg"
 Îbmkdo mo ]ëynkblt
 ” 
Mkt}ykiudkôb Oeëd}ykdg% MBV4% KOD 06386%KOD 070;3% Hoboygdkôb Mkt}ykiukmg% HTN% Nlmiut% YomotKb}oekhob}ot% Y]_% ]oeodlngbml"
K"
 
K
B]YLM_DDKÔB
LT Tkt}ongt mo Mkt}ykiudkôb Oeëd}ykdg #TMO+ dlnvyobmobg }lmlt elt oeonob}lt mo }ygbtvly}o mo oboyhîg uikdgmlt
ghugt gigjl
mo egt tuiot}gdklbot vykngykgt% elt dugeotyomudob elt bkpoeot mo }obtkôb vyldomob}ot motmo eg o}gvg mo}ygbtnktkôb vgyg euohl ob}yohgy eg oboyhîg g elt dekob}ot mo egtonvyotgt mkt}ykiukmlygt" Ob Dckeo oskt}ob 47 onvyotgtmkt}ykiukmlygt Q7^ mktvuot}gt ob elt tkt}ongt kb}oydlbod}gmlt"Eg mkt}ykiudkôb mkyod}g mo eg oboyhîg% to yogekzg nomkgb}o elteegngmlt geknob}gmlyot l
 `oomoyt
wuo% dlnl tu blniyo elmkdo% geknob}gb ub çyog mo`kbkmg g bkpoeot mo nomkg }obtkôb#N]+ #ge}g }obtkôb #G]+ dlnúbnob}o moblnkbgml ob tkt}ongtmo mkt}ykiudkôb+ Q9^ mob}yl mo eg yom vgyg `kbgenob}o eeohgy g ego}gvg mo yomuddkôb mo }obtkôb g bkpoeot mo igjg }obtkôb #I]+Q4^ nomkgb}o elt }ygbt`lyngmlyot mo mkt}ykiudkôb l ]Muikdgmlt ob vlt}gdklbot gëyogt l dçngygt tui}oyyçbogt"Vly tu dlb`khuygdkôb ob ot}lt tkt}ongt to vuomob obdlb}ygydlbosklbot }yk`çtkdgt% ik`çtkdgt { nlbl`çtkdgt% ot}gt úe}kngtmgml eg iútwuomg mo yovgy}ky egt dgyhgt vgyg gnly}khugy oemotowukekiykl mo eg yom" L}yg dgygd}oyît}kdg mo ot}lt tkt}ongt ottu dlb`khuygdkôb }lvleôhkdg ob}yo egt dugeot to obduob}ygb eg}lvlelhîg obngeegmg% ob gbkeel { ygmkge tkobml ot}g úe}kng egnçt u}kekzgmg ob zlbgt yuygeot" Ob eg @kh"7 to gvyodkg ubmkghygng ubkekboge mo ub tkt}ong mo mkt}ykiudkôb dlb }lvlelhîgobngeegmg mo ubg dkumgm lykob}ge doydg moe ]îio}"
]ong `kbge mo kbpot}khgdkôb
Owukvlt { Vyl}ldlelt mo ]oeodlngbml ob eltTkt}ongt mo Mkt}ykiudkôb
vgyg oe duytl Mkt}ykiudkôb Oeëd}ykdg KOO . =?4"Vyl`otly huîg: My" Jlyho Nobmlzg Igozg% vyl`otly mo eg Otduoeg mo KbhobkoyîgOeëd}ykdg Vlb}k`kdkg _bkpoytkmgm Dg}ôekdg mo Pgevgygîtl" Ob}yohgml oe ? moBlpkoniyo mo 9679"
Eg lvoygdkôb mo ot}lt tkt}ongt moio yogekzgyto dlb ub ge}lbkpoe mo dlb`kgikekmgm vgyg gtî ob}yohgy g elt dekob}ot ubgdlb}kbukmgm moe tunkbkt}yl gb}o vltkieot `geegt ob eg yom% ot vlyoeel wuo ot bodotgykl vlmoy nomky {,u lvoygy dkoy}lt owukvltvgyg gtohuygy ot}g dlb}kbukmgm l ikob mktnkbuky elt }konvlt moyotvuot}g moe voytlbge mo toypkdkl" Hygdkgt g egt buopgt}odblelhîgt ob oe çyog mo egt dlnubkdgdklbot to vuomo dlb}gydlb ubg pgt}g hgng owukvlt lvoygmlt mo ngboyg yonl}g motmoelt dob}ylt mo lvoygdkôb% gtî }gnikëb dlnl elt vyl}ldleltutgmlt ob ot}gt dlnubkdgdklbot elt dugeot tlb gnvekgnob}odlnoydkgekzgmlt { dunveob dlb ot}çbmgyot kb}oybgdklbgeotvoynk}kobml g egt onvyotgt mkt}ykiukmlygt dlb}gy dlb ubgvlmoyltg { `eoskieo coyygnkob}g wuo vlmyîg mktnkbuky tuthgt}lt lvoygdklbgeot ob oe dly}l vegzl"KK"
 
L
IJO]KPLT
 .
 
Kb}ylmudky dlbdov}lt tliyo gu}lng}kzgdkôb { dlb}yle obyomot mo mkt}ykiudkôb oeëd}ykdg nomkgb}o mktvltk}kplt mo}oeodlngbml".
 
Mgy ubg pktkôb tliyo egt knveonob}gdklbot `u}uygt mo eltmktvltk}kplt mo }oeodlngbml { dlb}yle ob Dckeo nomkgb}oegt yomot kb}oekhob}ot { eg hoboygdkôb mkt}ykiukmg".
 
Motdykiky egt vykbdkvgeot dgygd}oyît}kdgt mo elt owukvlt}oeodlngbml% vyl}ldlelt { tkt}ongt mo dlnubkdgdkôb monçt u}kekzgmlt ob elt TMO".
 
Nlt}ygy eg kbdkmobdkg moe utl mo ot}lt mktvltk}kplt ob eltbkpoeot mo dlb`kgikekmgm mo ubg onvyotg mkt}ykiukmlyg"
Gu}lng}kzgdkôb ob Yomot mo Mkt}ykiudkôb:Owukvlt { Vyl}ldlelt mo ]oeodlngbml
Gbmyët Gykgt Tkepg
k
%
T}umob} Nonioy% KOOO%
Dgnkel Iygpl Iygpl
kk
%
T}umob} Nonioy% KOOO 
 
E
@kh" 7" Mkghygng ubkekboge mo ub tkt}ong mo mkt}ykiudkôb jub}l ge mokeunkbgdkôb vúiekdg mo eg eldgekmgm mo Hoeovcu% mkt}yk}l mo Tgyvgbh moe yokblmo Iu}çb ob egt doydgbîgt moe ]îio}" #@uob}o: Movgy}nob} l` _yigbMopoelvnob} & Obhkbooykbh Toypkdot% xxx"mumc"hlp"i}+
 
KOO
 — 
=?4 Mkt}ykiudkôb Oeëd}ykdg 9KKK"
 
G
_]LNG]KZGDKÔB
 
OB
 
Y
OMOT
 
MO
 
M
KT]YKI_DKÔB
 
 G"
 
Tkt}ongt Dlb}yle { Gu}lng}kzgdkôb ob ]konvl Yoge
Eg gu}lng}kzgdkôb ob yomot mo mkt}ykiudkôb oeëd}ykdg ot eggvekdgdkôb mo }ëdbkdgt { yoduytlt bodotgyklt vgyg wuo oetkt}ong mo mkt}ykiudkôb ob dlbjub}l vuomg toy lvoygml {dlb}ylegml yonl}gnob}o% dllymkbgbml gtî oe utl mo tutmkt}kb}lt oeonob}lt ob }konvl yoge Q=^" Oe }ëynkbl }konvl yogekbmkdg wuo oe tkt}ong mo dlb}yle moio toy dgvgz mo yotvlbmoygb}o ot}înuelt hoboygmlt vly oe ob}lybl mob}yl mo ub voyklmlmo }konvl `kbk}l otvodk`kdgml% eg ygvkmoz moe Tkt}ong mo]konvl Yoge #T]Y+ moio toy ge}g vgyg dgtlt ob wuo lduyyg ubg`geeg l igjlt vgyg oe dgtl mo li}oboy ubg nomkdkôb mkgykg lnobtuge mo gehúb owukvl"
 I"
 
 Yomot Kb}oekhob}ot { Hoboygdkôb Mkt}ykiukmg
Oe dlbdov}l mo Yom Kb}oekhob}o l Tngy} Hykm to vuomo mo`kbkyob }ëynkblt hoboygeot dlnl ubg gnvekg hgng mo tleudklbotwuo g{umg g lv}knkzgy oe `ubdklbgnkob}l mo ubg yom mo ngboygkb}oekhob}o jub}l dlb tu gu}lng}kzgdkôb"Ob ubg yom oeëd}ykdg ot}o dlbdov}l to ot}ç knveonob}gbml#@kh" 9+ jub}l dlb oe guho mo egt Oboyhîgt Yoblpgieot blDlbpobdklbgeot #OYBD+% mgml wuo voynk}o eg kb}ohygdkôb moelt tkt}ongt mo hoboygdkôb% }ygbtnktkôb { mkt}ykiudkôb dlb oe`kb mo ob}yohgy mo ngboyg o`kdkob}o% tlt}obkieo { nçt dlb`kgieoeg oeod}ykdkmgm g elt dlbtunkmlyot `kbgeot"Ob dugb}l g eg Hoboygdkôb Mkt}ykiukmg #HM+ to yo`koyo% ot}gdlbtkt}o ob eg hoboygdkôb l gengdobgnkob}l mo oboyhîg gvowuo÷g otdgeg ob dlnvgygdkôb dlb egt hygbmot dob}ygeot mohoboygdkôb% uikdgmg doydg mo egt dob}ylt mo dgyhg% l ob euhgyotgeojgmlt mo egt yomot mo mkt}ykiudkôb% onveogbml ob tu ng{lyîg}odblelhîgt o`kdkob}ot Q?^% el duge ob vgy}o voynk}o g eltutugyklt mo onvyotgt mkt}ykiukmlygt hoboygy oeod}ykdkmgm {dlnoydkgekzgyeg mkyod}gnob}o% el wuo cgdo dlb}gy dlb ubg yomvyovgygmg vgyg oeel"Oe `ubdklbgnkob}l mo egt yomot kb}oekhob}ot ob dlbjub}l dlbeg HM ob tkt}ongt mo mkt}ykiudkôb oeëd}ykdg ot}ç tujo}l gemotgyyleel }odbleôhkdl mo elt owukvlt wuo eg dlnvlbob#gu}lng}kzgmlt ob tu ng{lyîg+ { eg mktvltkdkôb mo egtonvyotgt vgyg kbpoy}ky ob eg knveonob}gdkôb mo ot}lt% ygzôbvly eg duge to cgdo bodotgykl dlbldoy tu `ubdklbgnkob}l {vykbdkvgeot dgygd}oyît}kdgt"
D"
 
Vgblygng Bgdklbge
Tk ikob oe codcl mo dlb}gy dlb owukvlt% vyl}ldlelt { tkt}ongtmo dlnubkdgdkôb bl cgdo wuo ubg yom tog gu}lng}kzgmg ob tu}l}gekmgm% ot}l gvub}g cgdkg oe motgyyleel `u}uyl mo eg yom" ObDckeo {g oskt}ob gpgbdot ob dugb}l g eg blyng}kpg% dlb egvylnuehgdkôb mo eg Eo{ B¶
96"?87 wuo ―Yohueg oe V
ghl mo egt]gyk`gt Oeëd}ykdgt mo egt Hoboygmlygt Yotkmobdkgeot
„ Q0^ eg
duge iutdg toy ub kbdob}kpl g elt Vowuo÷lt Nomklt moHoboygdkôb Mkt}ykiukmlt #VNHM+ ob igto g egt OYBD%dlbldkml g bkpoe kb}oybgdklbge dlnl
 Bo} No}oykbh
% el wuotkhbk`kdg ub gpgbdo vgyg oe vgît ob dugb}l g eg `u}uygknveonob}gdkôb mo
Tngy} Hykmt
{ HM g igto mo OYBD obclhgyot vgy}kduegyot"KP"
 
O
W_KVLT
 
]
OEODLNGBMGML
 
OB
 
Y
OMOT
 
MO
 
M
KT]YKI_DKÔB
 Vgyg elhygy eg gu}lng}kzgdkôb% {g tog g bkpoe ngtkpl }ge dlnlel vylvlbo oe dlbdov}l mo
Tngy} Hykm 
l ikob elhygy wuo obvgy}o% oe tkt}ong vuomg lvoygy ob `lyng gu}lnç}kdg% tobodotk}gb mo owukvlt dlb dgvgdkmgm mo nomkdkôb {dlnubkdgdkôb mo ngboyg yonl}g" Elt owukvlt mo ngbkliyg wuoto ot}umkgyçb to obduob}ygb vykbdkvgenob}o ob oe bkpoe mo G]{g tog ob egt tuiot}gdklbot dlnl ob eg yom uyigbg l yuyge"G dlb}kbugdkôb to motdykikyçb elt owukvlt }oeodlngbmgmltnçt u}kekzgmlt% vyotob}gbml tut vykbdkvgeot dgygd}oyît}kdgt molvoygdkôb" Dlnoydkgenob}o oskt}ob pgykgmgt onvyotgt wuo elt`giykdgb% ot vly oeel wuo to nuot}ygb tlel gehublt owukvlt gnlml mo ojonvel% dgio mot}gdgy wuo dgmg ubl mo oeelt vltoodlnubkdgdkôb l }oeodlngbml g mkt}gbdkg { lduvgb }odblelhîgtmo gktegnkob}l ob gkyo% gdok}o% hgt T@0
7
{ mkoeëd}ykdl tôekmltkobml ot}lt úe}knlt mlt elt nçt u}kekzgmlt ob eg gd}ugekmgm"
 G"
 
Owukvlt Yodlbod}gmlyot
_b yodlbod}gmly ot ub owukvl mo vyl}oddkôb wuo to vuomomo`kbky Q8^ dlnl ub mktvltk}kpl gu}l dlb}ylegml vgygkb}oyyuvdkôb { yodlboskôb gu}lnç}kdg ob dkyduk}lt mo dlyykob}oge}oybg% dlb ubg toduobdkg vyomo}oynkbgmg mo gvoy}uyg { dkoyyo%tohukmg vly ubg `gto mo yot}gieodknkob}l% ielwuol mo gvoy}uyg#obdegpgnkob}l+ { motielwuol mo gvoy}uyg" Ob eg @kh" 4 tonuot}yg ub yodlbod}gmly gu}lnç}kdl }yk`çtkdl ngydg GII"
7
Oe Cosg`eulyuyl mo Gzu`yo #T@0+ ot ub hgt kboy}o gy}k`kdkge dlb osdoeob}otvylvkomgmot mo gktegnkob}l% ot}gikekmgm }ëynkdg { wuînkdg" Ot ge}gnob}o}ôskdl { mg÷kbl vgyg oe nomklgnikob}o"@kh" 4" Yodlbod}gmly gu}lnç}kdl }yk`çtkdl LPY 4 mo GII wuo vltoo gktegmlymkoeëd}ykdl tôekml" Pg nlb}gml ob vlt}ot l ob tuiot}gdklbot Q3^"
 
@kh" 9" Egt
Tngy} Hykmt
iutdgb kb}ohygy g }lmlt elt gd}lyot ob hoboygdkôb%}ygbtnktkôb { mkt}ykiudkôb mo oboyhîg oeëd}ykdg" #@uob}o xxx"ck}gdck"dln+
 
KOO
 — 
=?4 Mkt}ykiudkôb Oeëd}ykdg 4Vgyg keut}ygy mo nojly ngboyg eg lvoygdkôb mo ot}ltmktvltk}kplt ob eg @kh" = to nuot}yg eg toduobdkg mo lvoygdkôbmo ub yodlbod}gmly1 ge lduyyky ubg `geeg oe yodlbod}gmly lvoygvly vyknoyg poz ob ub }konvl
vgyg euohl voyngbodoy gikoy}lmuygb}o ub dkoy}l }konvl #hoboygenob}o 7 tohubml+ ge dgil moeduge yodlbod}gyç eg eîbog `geegmg" Tk eg `geeg cg motgvgyodkml% oeyodlbod}gmly voyngbodo doyygml { to yot}gieodo oe toypkdklvoyl tk eg `geeg voyngbodo% oe yodlbod}gmly lvoyg vly tohubmgpoz cgt}g dlnveo}gy oe búnoyl nçsknl mo yodlbosklbot" Ot}ltowukvlt to vuomob obdlb}ygy dlnoydkgenob}o }gb}l vgygdlb`khuygdkôb nlbl`çtkdg dlnl }yk`çtkdg"
 
Ot}lt owukvlt to vuomob litoypgy hoboygenob}o ob vlt}ot ltuiot}gdklbot }gb}l ob dlb`khuygdkôb nlbl`çtkdg dlnl}yk`çtkdg" Oe yodlbod}gmly% ge toy ub owukvl mo gvoy}uyg { dkoyyogu}lnç}kdl vuomo dlnikbgy dlb `ubdklbot gpgbzgmgt modlb}yle { vyl}oddkôb mo elt yoeët nlmoyblt vly }oeodlngbml"
 I"
 
Owukvlt Toddklbgekzgmlyot
_b toddklbgekzgmly ot ub mktvltk}kpl mo vyl}oddkôb wuo gîteggu}lnç}kdgnob}o egt `geegt ob eîbogt mo mkt}ykiudkôb" To moiokbt}gegy ghugt gigjl mo ub yodlbod}gmly vgyg lvoygy gb}o `geegtlduyykmgt mob}yl mo tu zlbg mo vyl}oddkôb" Oe toddklbgekzgmlyduob}g oe búnoyl mo gvoy}uygt { dkoyyot o`od}ugmlt vly oeyodlbod}gmly giykobml ob oe nlnob}l ob wuo oe yodlbod}gmlycgdo tu gvoy}uyg mo`kbk}kpg gb}o ubg `geeg voyngbob}o" Ot}ltowukvlt bl vltoob duypgt dgygd}oyît}kdgt mo lvoygdkôb mo}konvl.dlyykob}o mgml wuo to dllymkbgb mkyod}gnob}o dlb eltyodlbod}gmlyot" Ob eg @kh" ? to gvyodkg ub toddklbgekzgmly}yk`çtkdl ngydg GII"Vgyg ub gmodugml `ubdklbgnkob}l to moio dlbtkmoygy wuo oetoddklbgekzgmly moio gjut}gyto dlnl nçsknl vgyg wuo giyg obubg lvoygdkôb noblt wuo oe mktvltk}kpl dlb yodlboskôbgu}lnç}kdg uikdgml ghugt gyykig% gmonçt ët}o owukvl vuomo toyutgml ob toyko dlb l}ylt mktvltk}kplt mo vyl}oddkôb% voyl blob}yo mlt yodlbod}gmlyot"
D"
 
Owukvlt Kb}oyyuv}lyot
_b kb}oyyuv}ly% ot ub mktvltk}kpl nodçbkdl dgvgz mo yogekzgyeg motdlboskôb mo eg yom% kbmovobmkob}onob}o mo eg poeldkmgmonveogmg vly oe lvoygykl wuo yogekzg eg ngbkliyg% tog ot}g mo`lyng yonl}g l eldge"Nomkgb}o ot}o gddklbgnkob}l nodçbkdl ot dgvgz mo toylvoygml yonl}gnob}o nomkgb}o ubg dgjg mo dlb}yle uikdgmgnçt gigjl mo eg vlt}gdkôb #@kh" 0+ { gddklbgmg vly ub nl}lywuo knvuetg ub pçt}ghl% l ikob ub lvoygykl vlmyç yogekzgy egmotdlboskôb mo ngboyg eldge"
 M"
 
Owukvlt Toddklbgmlyot l Motdlbod}gmlyot
Moblnkbgmlt }gnikëb tovgygmlyot% to u}kekzgb vgyg giyky ldoyygy ub dkyduk}l% mo ngboyg wuo tog vltkieo ngbkvuegy% vlyojonvel% ubg eîbog ghugt gigjl moe toddklbgmly tkb voekhylvgyg elt `kbot mo dlbtoypgdkôb l yovgygdkôb1 mo ot}g `lyng blto kb}oyyunvkyç oe `ubdklbgnkob}l moe yot}l mo eg kbt}gegdkôb"Ob vykbdkvkl ot}lt owukvlt tlel oskt}îgb vgyg ngbkliygt tkbdgyhg% voyl hygdkgt g eg }odblelhîg gd}uge ot vltkieoobdlb}ygyelt dlnl motdlbod}gmlyot igjl dgyhg }ge dlnl elnuot}yg eg @kh" 8"
@kh" 0" Kb}oyyuv}ly }yk`çtkdl Gemu}k.Yuv}oy tkb gydl os}oybl% mo T&D" _}kekzgblvoygmlyot }kvl GT.7G { GT.76 moe nktnl `giykdgb}o Q77^"@kh" 8" Otwuong mo ub toddklbgmly igjl dgyhg% Hgng TN0 TdcbokmoyOeod}ykd% dlb dlb}gd}lt yl}g}kplt { gtkegnkob}l vly hgt T@0" ]kobo gmonçt% eglvdkôb mo vuot}g g }koyyg" #@uob}o: xxx"tdcbokmoy.oeod}ykd"dln+@kh" ?" Toddklbgekzgmly }yk`çtkdl Gu}lEkba mo GII% vuomo toy kbt}gegml obmk`oyob}ot tk}klt mo eg yom mo nomkg }obtkôb% dlb`khuygbml eg dlyykob}o mogd}ugdkôb { elt dlb}olt% mo ngboyg mo li}oboy ubg dlyyod}g dllymkbgdkôb Q76^"@kh" =" Mkghygng mo toduobdkg mo lvoygdkôb mo ub yodlbod}gmly gu}lnç}kdlmo mkt}ykiudkôb Q;^"

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