generally 10% overspeed, a latching device or oil dump mechanism is actuated to close a specialemergency stop valve. This system is totally independent of the governor There are two primary types of trip actuation systems, the mechanical type and electronic type.Figure No.1 shows a mechanical system that is completely separate from the speed governingsystems. A trip pin or plunger is mounted in the turbine shaft with its center of gravity slightly off center. In the event the speed regulating governor fails to control the speed, the unbalanced plunger overcomes a spring force at a preset trip speed. As it moves outward, it strikes the trip-lever, causingrelease of a spring dump valve that releases the trip circuit oil pressure. This unbalances a piston-spring combination and causes the trip and throttle valve to slam shut by the force of a spring and thesteam pressure above the valve disk. A few high-speed machines use a weighted disk and a dishedwasher to accomplish the tripping action. The remainder of the action is identical.In the electronic trip, speed is sensed similar to the system described in the governor section. Whenoverspeed reaches the set point, an action is initiated to shut the emergency stop valve. This action isusually through an electric solenoid or mechanical valve that dumps the hydraulic oil on a trip throttlevalve (large turbines) or releases a mechanical link to the emergency stop valve (small turbines).In addition to overspeed, a solenoid valve can be made to shut down the turbine in response to lowoil pressure, remote push buttons, or abnormal process conditions.
BASIC TRIP-THROTTLE VALVE DESIGNS:
The design concept of the standard trip throttle valve is basically that of a globe valve with a stem nutthat is mounted in a frame or bracket that is free to move. There are four design variations: twoconcerning the direction of the closing action, and two involving the method of holding the movablestem nut in its operating position.
Direction of Closing Action:
The basic designs of the trip throttle valve with respect to direction of travel can be placed in twocategories: (a) those where the valve plug is pushed onto the seat by the closing force, and (b)those where the valve plug is pulled onto a seat by the closing force. Because of the dual functionsrequired of the valve - the tripping action and the throttling action - the stem must be in two pieces inboth designs. The stem of the steam shutoff part of the valve does not rotate; it only slides to fulfillthe tripping action needed. The actuator assembly stem has rotary motion so that it can be positionedwithin the spring-loaded, hydraulically positioned stem nut to permit throttling. Therefore, there mustbe a change of direction and rotation within the split coupling. A hardened steel button, commonlycalled a thrust bearing, separates the ends of the two stems. Maintenance of alignment between thetwo stems is difficult.
onto Seat Design:
In the larger valve sizes, the closing force on the valve stems and split coupling is not adequatelydesigned to accommodate the impact load generated by this high closing force and anymisalignment. This closing force must function in less than one-half second upon turbine overspeed,