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Engine Friction

Engine Friction

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Published by PRASAD326

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Published by: PRASAD326 on Feb 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/26/2011

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ENGINE FRICTION AND LUBRICATIONFriction generally refers to forces acting between the surfaces in relative motion .In engines ,firctional losses are mainly due to the SLIDING as well as ROTATINGPARTS . Normally, engine friction(fp) is the difference between indicated power (ip)and the break  power ,bp [fp=ip-bp]Frictional losses is due to the following mechanical losses
Direct frictional losses
 pumping losses
 power loss due to dirve the component to change and scavenge
 power loss to drive other auxiliary componentsA good engine design should not allow the total frictional losses to be more than30% of the energy input in receprocating in engines .It should should be the aim of agood designer to reduse friction and wear of the parts subjected to relative motion .This isachived by PROPER LUBRICATION.VARIOUS LOSSES ASSOCIATED WITH FRICTION:
DIRECT FRICTIONAL LOSSES:It is the power absorbed due to the relative motion of differnt bearing surfacessuch as pistion rings ,main bearings camshaft baerings etc , since, there are a number of moving parts ,the frictional losses are comparitively higher in reciprocating engines.
PUMPING LOSSESIn the case of a FOUR-STROKE engine, a considerable amount of energy is spentduring intake and exhaust processes. the pumping loss is the net power spent by theengine(piston) on the working medium (gases) during intake and exhaust strokes. In caseof 2-stroke engines this is negligible since the incoming fresh mixture is used toscavenge the exhaust gases.
Power loss to drive components to change and scavenge.
Power loss to drive the auxiliaries.MECHANICAL FRICTION:Friction loss comes into picture in the bearing sinfase of the engine componentsdue to their relative motion mechanical friction may be further classified into six types:1. Fluid film or hydrodynamic friction2. Partial-film friction3. Rolling friction4. Dry friction5. Journal bearing friction6. Friction due to piston motionFACTORS AFFECTING MECHANICAL FRICTION:1.Engine design: various design parameters: a. Stroke bore ratio
Effect of engine size
Piston rings
Copres

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