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Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium

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Published by Michael Mohamed
A note on Chemical Equilibrium systems. From SCH4U0 notes.
A note on Chemical Equilibrium systems. From SCH4U0 notes.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Michael Mohamed on Feb 04, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/03/2014

 
Equilibrium:
the extent of a reactionIn stoichiometry we talk about theoretical yields, and the many reasons actual yields may belower.
-
Another critical reason actual yields may be lower is the
reversibility
of chemical reactions:some reactions may produce only 70% of the product you may calculate they ought toproduce.
-
Equilibrium
is a state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by in terms of 
macroscopic
observation.
-
The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal and
The concentration of the reactants and the products remain constant.
N
2
O
4(g)
2NO
2(g)
Chemical equilibrium
is reached when
-
H
2
O
(l)
H
2
O
(g)
Physical equilibrium
is reached when
-
The Concept of Equilibrium
Consider the colorless frozen N
2
O
4
. At room temperature, it decomposes to brown NO
2
-
At some time, the color stops changing and we have a mixture of N
2
O
4
and NO
2
.
-
Chemical equilibrium is the point at which the rate of the forward reaction is equal to therate of the reverse reactions.
-
At that point, the concentrations of all species are constant. (Reactions are still occurringbut the rates of reactions are equal)
-
As the amount of NO
2
builds up, there is a chance that two NO
2
molecules will collideto form N
2
O
4
At the beginning of the reaction, there is no NO
2
, so the reverse reaction (2NO
2(g)
->N
2
O
4(g)
) will not occur.
Using the collision model:
-
N
2
O
4(g)
2NO
2(g)
As the substance warms it begins to decompose:
-
2NO
2(g)
N
2
O
4(g)
When enough NO
2
is formed, it can react to form N
2
O
4
.
-
At equilibrium, as much N
2
O
4
reacts to form NO
2
as NO
2
reacts to re-form N
2
O
4
.
-
N
2
O
4(g)
2NO
2(g)
The double arrow implies the process is dynamic
-
[A] decreases to a constant
[B] increases from zero to a constant
When [A] and [B] are constant, equilibrium is achieved
As the reaction progresses
-
Le Châtelier's Principle
If an external stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system adjusts in such a waythat the stress is partially offset as the system reaches a new equilibrium position.
-
Changes in Concentration
N
2(g)
+ 3H
2(g)
2NH
3(g)
… You can add NH
3
to this reaction to add reverse pressure.
-
a
A +
b
B
c
C +
d
D
This will cause the equilibrium to shift stress to the left of the reaction.
-
ChangeShifts the Equilibrium
Increase the concentration of the productsLeftDecrease the concentration of the productsRightIncrease the concentration of reactantsRightDecrease the concentration of the reactantsLeft
Changes in Volume and Pressure
A
(g)
+ B
(g)
C
(g)
-
ChangeShifts the Equilibrium
Increase PressureSide with fewest moles of gasDecrease PressureSide with greatest moles of gasIncrease volumeSide with greatest moles of gasDecrease volumeSide with fewest moles of gas
Changes in Temperature
(ONLY stress that changes the value of K which is the equilibrium constant)
-
ChangeExothermic ReactionEndothermic Reaction
Increase temperatureK
(
[react])K
(
[react])Decrease temperatureK
(
[react])K
(
[react])
K
eq
=([C]
c
[D]
d
)/([A]
a
[B]
b
)
Homework
Section 7.1
434-438 questions 1-5 pg 438
-
Qualitative Equilibrium Worksheet
-
Read Sample Problem pg 433-436
-
Report Cards :'(
-
1a) The observable characteristics would be the concentrationsof the reactants and the products initially and at equilibrium.1b) The equilibrium is considered dynamic because eventuallythe reactants will be forming products at the same rate asproducts are forming reactants.1c) The rates are equal in the system.2a) Three systems that can be considered to be in 'equilibrium'The amount of money that two companies are giving eachother in terms of purchasing a product (monetary) and theamount of money that company will gain when the costs of selling and manufacturing that product are considered
-
The gravitational forces acting on an object that is held in theair for a short period of time: The forces holding it up are equalto the forces of gravity pushing it down.
-
The amount of oxygen entering someone's lungs in comparisonto the amount of carbon dioxide leaving it. Also the amount of energy gained by both the trees and the person breathing.
-
3a) CH
4(g)
+ Cl
2(g)
CH
3
Cl
(g)
+ HCl
(g)
, because the limitingreagent is the 2.0mol of CH
4(g)
in this reaction only 2.0mol of CH
3
Cl
(g)
can be produced.3b) The percent reaction is (2.0mol-1.4mol)/2.0mol=0.3*100=30%, meaning that only 70% of the expected reaction actuallytook place. Because less product than expected was produced,this means that overall the reaction shifted left, favoring thereactants.4a)Change TypeC
2
H
4(g)
Br
2(g)
C
2
H
4
Br
2(g)
Init. M 4.00mol/L2.50mol/LEquil M4.00mol/L-x=2.5mol/L2.50mol/L
Qualitative Equilibrium Problems
In this problem, there may be a production of H
2
and O
2
beingproduced in the closed bottle, however since there is so muchO
2
in the bottle the rate at which the reactant of H
2
O isproduced may be a much higher rate than the production of hydrogen and oxygen gas, thus never coming to equilibrium.1.This can be considered a situation at equilibrium if the amountof students leaving the school was exactly equal to the amountof students entering the school in a new year or from newentries. If no one was leaving or entering, this would not beconsidered equilibrium.2.2SO
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
2SO
3(g)
, this situation may be in equilibrium, ia catalyst was added to the reaction and the reaction shifted interms of the amount of reactants produced and the productsreduced, then it could be inducted that before adding thecatalyst it was not in equilibrium.3.This demonstrates that regardless of the way that a reactionbegins, if given the same temperature and pressure and also acertain amount of time, equilibria that are the same can beattained.4.This shows that the reactions is always occurring in that theiodine solid is constantly being reacted into solution just asoften as the solution is being crystallized. Therefore, when theradioactive properties of the solution are found it can beassumed that the reaction was ongoing (re: dynamic).5.
Le Châtelier's Principle Homework
In this case, the amount of pressure in the syringe has beenincreased, and the concentration has increased (and thesolution will darken accordingly. Because the N
2
O
4
side hasfewer moles, it is shifted leading to an increase in the amountof those in the syringe after the reaction stabilizes. Pressuringice will not make it melt because the equilibrium has a sidewith neither more or less moles (H
2
O
(l)
H
2
O
(s)
) and thereaction will not shift on either side more than the other.However, if there is equal volume and temperature on the iceas before, the increased pressure will cause it to melt.6.In a. The increase in [H
2
] will cause the product side toincrease. In b. The removal of N
2(g)
will cause the reaction tomove to the right, therefore increasing the amount of productsformed. In c. the decrease of pressure will cause theequilibrium constant to increase and decrease the amount of 7.
Chemical Equilibrium
Tuesday, November 11, 20088:23 AM
 
 
Chemistry Page 1

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