1 LUB property of
R
and its consequences
1. Field of real numbers; We reviewed the order relations and the standard results on themanipulation of inequalities.2. We say that a real number
α
is an upper bound of
A
if, for each
x
∈
A
, we have
x
≤
α
.(Geometrically, this means that elements of
A
are to the left of
α
on the number line.)A real number
β
is
not
an upper bound of
A
if there exists at least one
x
∈
A
such that
x > α
.If
α
is an upper bound of
A
and
α
> α
, then
α
is an upper bound of
A
.3. Lower bounds of a nonempty subset of
R
are deﬁned analogously.If
α
is a lower bound of
A
, where can you ﬁnd elements of
A
in the number line withreference to
α
? When do you say a real number is not a lower bound of
A
?4. There exists a lower bound for
N
in
R
. Does there exist an upper bound for
N
in
R
?The answer is ‘No’ and it requires a proof which involves the single most importantproperty of
R
. See Item 195.
∅
=
A
⊂
R
is said to be
bounded above
in
R
if there exists
α
∈
R
which is an upperbound of
A
, that is, if there exists
α
∈
R
such that for each
x
∈
A
, we have
x
≤
α
.6. Subsets of
R
bounded below are deﬁned analogously.7.
A
is
not
bounded above in
R
if for each
α
∈
R
, there exists
x
∈
A
(which depends on
α
) such that
x > α
. Can you visualize this in number line?8. When do you say
A
⊂
R
is not bounded below in
R
?9. Exercise:(a) If
∅
=
A
⊂
R
is ﬁnite then an upper bound of
A
belongs to
A
.(b) Let
α
be an upper bound of
A
⊂
R
. If
α
∈
A
, then
α
= lub
A
.(c) Any lower bound of a nonempty subset
A
of
R
is less than or equal to an upperbound of
A
.10. Let
∅
=
A
⊂
R
be bounded above. A real number
α
∈
R
is said to be a
least upper bound
A
if (i)
α
is an upper bound of
A
and (ii) if
β
is an upper bound of
A
, then
α
≤
β
.11. If
α
and
β
are least upper bounds of
A
, then
α
=
β
, that is, least upper bound of a(nonempty) subset (bounded above) is unique. We denote it by lub
A
.12.
α
∈
R
is the least upper bound of
A
iﬀ (i)
α
is an upper bound of
A
and (ii) if
β < α
,then
β
is not an upper bound of
A
, that is, if
β < α
, then there exists
x
∈
A
such that
x > β
.13. If an upper bound
α
of
A
belongs to
A
, then lub
A
=
α
.14. A greatest lower bound of a subset of
R
bounded below in
R
is deﬁned analogously.2