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Salient Features of Existing & Proposed Dams in Pakistan

Salient Features of Existing & Proposed Dams in Pakistan

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Published by Faisal Sardar

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Published by: Faisal Sardar on Dec 10, 2012
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Mangla Dam is the sixteenth largest dam in the world. It wasconstructed from 1961 to 1967 across theJhelum River,about 67miles (108 km) south-east of the Pakistanicapital,IslamabadinMirpur Districtof Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The main structures of the dam include 4 embankment dams,2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels and a1,000MWpower station.  The main dam is 10,300 feet (3,100 m) long and 454 feet (138 m)high (above core trench) with a reservoir of 97 square miles(250 km
). Since its first impounding in 1967, sedimentation hasoccurred to the extent of 1,130,000 acre feet (1.39 km
), and thepresent gross storage capacity has declined to 4,750,000 acre feet(5.86 km
) from the actual design of 5,880,000 acre feet(7.25 km
). The live capacity has declined to 4,580,000 acre feet(5.65 km
) from 5,340,000 acre feet (6.59 km
). This implies areduction of 19.22% in the capacity of the dam.The power station of Mangla dam consists of 10 units each havingcapacity of 100 MW.In order to remedy the storage capacity decreases, the Pakistanigovernment has decided to raise the dam by 40 feet (12 m), to 494feet (151 m) high. This will increase the reservoir capacity by18% and provide an additional 120 MW(644 GWh) of power, butwill displace 40,000 people currently living near the reservoir.The project was designed primarily to increase the amount of water that could be used for irrigation from the flow of the Jhelumand its tributaries. Its secondary function was to generate electrical power from the irrigation releases atthe artificial head of the reservoir. The project was not designed as a flood control structure, althoughsome benefit in this respect also arises from its use for irrigation and water supply. The Government of Pakistan had agreed to pay royalties to the Government of AJK (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) for the use of the water and electricity generated by the dam. Over 280 villages and the towns of Mirpur and Dadyalwere submerged and over 110,000 people were displaced from the area as a result of the dam being built.Some of those affected by the dam were given work permits for Britain by the Government of Pakistan,and as a result, in many cities in the UK the majority of the 'Pakistani' community actually originatedfrom the Dadyal-Mirpur area of the disputed region of Jammu & Kashmir.
The project is located at a narrow spot in the Indus River valley, atTarbela in swabi, shortly located at the point from where the DistrictSwabi starts. Here the river formerly split around a large island closeto the left bank. The main dam wall, built of earth and rock fill,stretches 2,743 metres (8,999 ft) from the island to river right, standing148 metres (486 ft) high. A pair of concrete auxiliary dams spans theriver from the island to river left. Thespillways,located on theauxiliary dams, in turn consist of two parts. The main spillway has adischarge capacity of 18,406 cubic metres per second (650,000 cu ft/s)and the auxiliary spillway, 24,070 cubic metres per second(850,000 cu ft/s). Theoutlet worksare a group of four tunnels thathave been cut through the valley wall at river right, for uses of hydropower generation and flow control. These tunnels wereoriginally used to divert the Indus River while the dam was beingconstructed. A hydroelectric power plant on the right side of the maindam houses 14 generators fed with water from outlet tunnels 1, 2, and3. There are four 175 MW generators on tunnel 1, six 175 MWgenerators on tunnel 2, and four 432 MW generators on tunnel 3, for atotal generating capacity of 3,478 MW. Tarbela Reservoir is 80.5kilometres (50.0 mi) long, with a surface area of 250 square kilometres(97 sq mi). The reservoir holds 11,600,000acre feet(14.3 km
) of water, with a live storage of 9,700,000acre feet(12.0 km
). The catchment area upriver of the TarbelaDam is spread over 168,000 square kilometres (65,000 sq mi) of land largely supplemented by snow andglacier melt from the southern slopes of theHimalayas.There are two main Indus River tributariesupstream of the Tarbela Dam. These are theShyok River,joining nearSkardu,and theSiran RivernearTarbela.  The Tarbela Dam is the second largest in terms of dam volumein the world
The project is located on Indus River, about 315 km upstream of Tarbela Dam, 165 km downstream of the Gilgit-Baltistan capitalGilgit and 40 km downstream of Chilas (refer location map). Theproposed dam would have a maximum height of 272 m, and impounda reservoir of about 8.1million acre feet (MAF), with live storage of more than 6.4 MAF. Mean annual discharge of Indus River at the siteis 50 MAF. Thus the dam will impound 15% of the annual river flow.The dam project would cover an area of 110 km
and extend 100 kmupstream of the dam site upto Raikot Bridge on Karakoram Highway(KKH).The dam is located at the boundary of Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) andKhyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) in such a way that the right abutmentand the right Power House is in GB while the left bank of the damand the left Power House is in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy. Pakistan today isamong one of the World’s fastest growing
population, now estimatedas over 150 million. Due to lack of large river regulation capabilitythrough sizeable storages, the country is already facing seriousshortages in food grains. Given the present trend, Pakistan could soonbecome one of the food deficit countries in the near future.Therefore, there is a dire need to build storages for augmentingagriculture production.
LOCATION: 40 km downstream of chilas
MAINDAMmaximum height : 272 mtype roller : compacted concrete (rcc)
DIVERSION SYSTEM2 no. Diversion tunnels1 no. Diversion channelupstream and downstream cofferdams
Main SpillwayNo. Of gates 14size of gate 11.5 *16.24 mReservoir level 1160 m
GROSS CAPACITY 8.1 maf (10.0 bcm)
LIVE CAPACITY 6.4 maf (7.9 bcm)min.
Operation Level El. 1060 m
Outlets:low level 2sluicing 5
POWERHOUSE(S):2 total installed capacity 4500 mw

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