Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Jessica Espinoza

Jessica Espinoza

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5 |Likes:
Published by jessicaespinoza

analysis

analysis

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: jessicaespinoza on Dec 11, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/11/2012

pdf

text

original

 
i1:':i'=,=rt',..,-:li'.llt'r'*t,,t'.0,-:l:':'*;r.:[ntir:'.'r"
'='-:,,'it{tU\r/l'
Cottegereadinessis a multi-faceted{Whatthemodelarguesfor is a moreconceptcomprisingnumslorJs-l/arjahle_thatz.,comprehensiveookatwhatit meansto beinctudeactorsboth(ffinalandextern]to-,/college-ready,perspectivehat emphasizestheschoo[environme@l"theinterconnectednessofa[[ofthefacetsa functionalrepresentationfthe keyfacets,^lirtltontainedn themodet.This s thekeypointof cotlegereadiness,hemodelpresented"ofthisdefinition,thatatl facets of cotlegebetowJrganizesthekey areasnecessaryreadinessmustbeidentifiedand eventuatlyforcotteg-eeaclingssniofour concentricmeasuredf morestudentsare to bemadelevels.hese6ffiEE}ofcoltegereadinesscottege-ready.@dJRiiif-emergefro m areview of
^'\f
t.)t'?0"
the literatureandare hosethatcanbe mostdirectlynfluencedby schoots.Inpractice,hesevariousfacetsarenotmutua[tyexclusiveorperfecttynestedasportrayedn themodet.They interactwithoneanotherextensivety.orexampte,lackofcottegeknowtedgeoftenaffectshedecisionsstudentsmakeregardinghespecificontentknowtedgeheychooseostudyandmaster.Or a [ackof attentionoacademicehaviorssone ofthe mostfrequentcausesfprobtemsfor first-yearstudents,whethertheypossessthenecessaryontentknowledgeandkeycognitivetrategies.
k r-.irii."iaiilf'1,J='{i;;-,r1a:r,.
The successofa welt-preparedottegestudents builtupon afoundationofkey keycognitivestrategieshat enablestudentsolearncontentfromarange ofdisciptines.Unfortunatety,hedevelopmentofkeykeycognitivestrategiesnhigh schoolis oftenovershadowedyaninstructionalocusonde-contextuatizedontentandfacts necessarytopassexit examinationsrsimptyo keepstudentsusyandclassroomsuiet.Forthemostpart,statehigh-stakesstandardizedtestsrequirestudentstorecallor recognizeragmentedandisolatedbitsofinformation.Thosehat docontainperformanceasksare severetyimitednthetimethetaskscanake andtheir breadthordepth.Thetestsrarety requirestudentsoapptyheirearningand almostneverequirestudentsto exhibitproficiencyn higherformsofcognition(Marzano,Pickering,&McTighe,993).Severaltudiesf cottegeacuttymembersnationwide,egardtessf theselectivityftheuniversity,xpressedea -universaIgeementthatmost studentsarriveunpreparedorlheintetlectuaIdemandsandexpectationsofpostsecondaryContey,oo3a).Forexample,onestudyfoundthatfacultyreported thattheprimaryareasn whichfirst-yeartudentsneededfurtherdevelopmentwere criticaIthinkingndproblemolvingLundel[,igbee,Hipp,& Copeland,oo4).
Figuret'. FacetsfCa[tegeReadiness
.\o(Jlnq
rntqfi
d'I
&'t't
\
12RedefiningCollegeReadiness
 
--,tg-!t-*
Theterm"keycognitivestrategies"r|ispresentedrconctusionhatjsreached,was setectedorthismodel to describetre[lbut askswhyttri+rgs{eso.intel[igentbehaviorsnecessaryorcotlegeJ-z-rreadiriess and to emphasizethattf.r"-r"Y4lnalysis:The student identifies and evatuatesbehaviors eed o be devetopedver aperlod\7data,materiat,andsources orquatityofof timesuchhat heybecomewaysof thinking,content,vatidity,redibitity,ndretevance.
habitsn howntelteituatctivitiei repursuei.!l::tJ::*,:::ff:=1*".:,:T:":::::T
s
ln otherwords,keycognitive strategies are
,-s
and indings ndgeneratesummariesndThe term keyco{nitive strategiesnvokesaof vieworconctusion;cceptsritiquesfpracticedbehaviofs hat become a habitual:":1"-":^^:-.::::^-:
achiev
Thespecificreferencednt
patternsf intettefiual ehaviorhat leado-7aaexptanationsf sourcemateriats.ihedevetoomentf coonitivetrateqiesndh7 \ I J
..pJ*.r"l;;]il;;''ffia*"'::!!:,'1i2,T,"^i,'1'!i!:'proof:Thestudent
;;:-;:;;;^::--:::.*.ra a+^+aain...^,,ffconstructs we[l-reasonedarguments or
I rrL fLrlrf r\LYLvvrar\rvL JLrqtLvrLJrrrvvt\lJg.
,,_-,_,i_,1--.r_prooTso exptarnnenomenarIssues;more disciptinedpproacho thinkinq than:-;._ _i,L.,i_,.. _uTlnzesecognlzeoormsoIreasonlngo
terms Sucn asplsposlnons"or-rnlnKlng-^^.+,,,,+ah-r^r,^.^^+_^,{ ,r^+^^r _^^;^+
...-...r'_;-_:construct nargumentnddetendpointskitts."The termindicatesntentionaland:;..,^.-_-,.,_:- -^__.-:r:..---r
9rqLtrLLuvLrrqY rvtJ trrgtuLLvrI rggI tqurLuqt
1.._..,._.-.-,_,.-_-l.r.r _-rorcnattengestoasserilons;anoaooressesWaVOIWOrKlnq qwar0 mOre tnOugntTutan0./ __ir'-'-'.-.^l.I;.';:;.,;'".;"^:i"'""",/critiques andchatlengesbyprovidinginte[ligentaction(fosta&Kattick,2ooo)./ _ ,| /a roglcar exptanailon orreTutatlon, or
!{
"Underst
ndingand, ;;tfr.n!'.keycsntent nowledge
dthrough hb exbrcisef broaderognitive
skt tsebcdiedwithinheft"yccgniti:setrategies."
s'
s
\
key cognitive strategiesSby acknowtedging the accuracyofthepup"t"tLthoseshowrio-..\tcritiqueor chattenge'
IS
,-rmanifestationsf\),rr",,.ctuat openn
be ctosety e
include he
;Thestudentpo5ses5ess@in.eachdescription
curiosityan
athirstfor deeperij,ana-=my--tUmmonatitiesamong..or
hetpswhichpersonaI
dealwiththeencountered
and newiats.'-,__of view on a topic or issue.
'tocotteger.."rii't'.|"ift$nrerpreotion:Thestudent anatyzes
ing as themost mportant\/"-;mpetingand conflicting descriptionshisway of thinking:sroi.n event orissue to determine thequestionstheviewsofy(d.istinctionsbetweenthem; synthesizesseviewsarenot togicattyIthe results. f a,nanatysisof competing
,tsconstructiverifrcism,<
sonalviewsf warrantedq" orissueorphenomenonnto a coherent. Suchopenmindedness\exptanation; tates heinterpretation h.atp6ctivesnd helps studentspresentsoratly orinwriting an extendednovelty ndambiguity ftendescription, ummary, nd evatuation fnthe studyof ne-wlblectsvariedperspectivesnd conflictingpointsunderstandotherswhen
supported,
and changesby the evi
t. >ucnoPenmrrrqesnessunderstandthe ways inis most [ikely.correct.orismost reasonable,
is constructed,roidensbasedon the availableevidence;and
@lyquisitiveness:\--linquiryand
J
t/\
os,
Lt
/
/\student engages n active\9".Oion ondaccurocy: he student knowsogue aboufsrinlectmatter_whattype of,precisionsappropriate oand research
uesiions nd.tg€Kf-6 i-celthe task and the subjectrea,s abte o
to defend
or?GfrtioniliincreaserecisionndaccuracyhroughThetsdent-does-not'successiveapproximationsgenerated
.gw-tavvL
givenany assertfonhat
froma taskrprocesshatsrepeated,
linesof
nclr/tkthfl(n
RedefiningCoLlegeeadiness13
 
and usesreci$ionppropriatetyo reachA more complete xpositions containedncorrectonctu$ionsn thecontext f theUnderstandingniversity uccess,roducedtaskor subjectrea t hand.by StandardsorSuccessihroughthree-yearS
ilem otvine;hestudenteveropsnd:H#tJ:rt:[^r#ff"t.t1il"i,"&ffl'y"tlfi,\
app.tiesmuttiptfstrategies o solveoutineparticipatednextensivemeetingsand reviewsNproblems, en{ratestrategieso solvenon-toidentifywhat studentsmustdo to succeed n\routineprobt{ms,and apptiesmethodsentry-tevetourses ttheirnstitutionsContey,\ofproblemsofvi1g ocomplexprobtemszooia].These indingshavebeenconfirmedn\requiringmethJod-basedroblemsotving.subiequentstudies.$ ]Thesekey cognitivestrategiesare broadly--.\drepresentative{fthefoundationatetementsThis overview beginswithtwoacademic\Athatunderlie {rious"waysof knowing."ski[[areas hathave epeatedty eendentified\''1
rhese1e.theheartrhenterrectuarlfiilt"'"7:'"1'::ln:T;il"rt?"ilr'53;;;T'T$ S
eavorof the urfiversity.heyarenecessarynarrative escriptionsf content rom a number\\(Jiscern ruth airdmeaningas we[[ as toof coreacademicreas.\;ue them.Thejr are at theheart ofhow\ \\tsecondaryacrlttymembershink,and how{')Ithinkabouttheiisubjectareas.Withoutthe,4lOverarchingcademicSkitts\ \)abitity o thinkjntheieways, he enteringiRVifing;Writingis the means by whichl;.,- N \egestudenteitherstrugglesmightityuntit\VftstridentsarJ evaluatedat teast o some\ .'N .t S;ehabitsbeginptoevelopor missesuton--Sdegreeinnearly everypostsecondary)\ )$,-1..;;;k;;suUjectareaat hand.by standardsorSuccesshrough . tht;;j;;;S|f,\studyin which more than4oofacutty and.\--f]/\ryobkmsolving;hestudent devetopsandstaffmembers from20 researchuniversitiesRF\-/app.liesmuttiptfstrategies o solveoutineparticipatednextensivemeetingsand reviewsNl,fproblems, en$ratetrategieso solvenon-ioidentifywhat studentsmustdo to succeed n\\routine.probtQms,and apptiesmethodsentry-tevetourses ttheirnstitutionsContey,\Rofproblemsofvi1g ocomplexprobtemszooia].These indingshavebeenconfirmedn5Srequiringmetl"iod-basedroblemsotving.subiequentstudies.o t\Thesekey cognitivestrategiesare broadly--.\drepresentative{fthefoundationatetementsThis overview beginswithtwoacademic\Athatunderlie {rious"waysof knowing."ski[[areas hathave epeatedty eendentified\''1
rhesere.tfree.art_orhenteuectuarrtffit"'"T|ity"l[iT;iltt?"iirtf:;;;Tt]$ S
\ende.avorf the ur]riversity.heyarenecessarynarrativedescriptionsofontentfroma number\\(*-to discern ruth airdmeaningas we[[ as toof coreacademicreas.;Spursuehem.Thef are at th6heart ofhow\ SStiheythinkaboutthEiisubjectareas.Withoutthe,.qlOverarchiilgcademicSkitts\ \)
.rrrrhilif., fn fhink hn thpip wavs the enterinof C\rr-r*r^^. rArri+ina i. +hn h,, .^,F,irh- i :\
capabilityo thinkinheseways,he entering(t\)d/rirfng;Writingis the means by whichl;.' N \collegetudent ilherstrugglesightityntit\\ft"stridentsrJ evaluated t teast o some\ .N S i
_-..*y:i.:-:.,-:,",-..--.::rr,--"':J'.-.-t -..'.-\_/\->tur,rcltL)otE Evoruorsu oL rco)( Lv )vrrrs\ .A- .\ \
thesehabitsbeginptoevelopor missesuton--Sdegreeinnearly everypostsecondary)\ :$
the argestortioniofhatcottegeas o offer,'i.o.lrre.Expository,descriptive, ani/f )qwhichs howothlnkabout heworld.\\persuasivewriting areparticutarlyl\tit
/._ \\
1\\-importanttypesof writingin coltege./S-N
r s ; I i:c:=:,.*.C'.-\Sfrrrlentsareexnectedfowritealotin {-S-\
\',,,,,o**:r:.;-i_.r"',;*-ii',. ,:.-\*$:t,E:t'#t,i-55'lio,,l',.Jilf"iltr";.'lS
$
a
\
$..
5achievedhroighthe exerciseof broaderCottegewriting requiresstudents. o|-qi
\-^^^i+i.,^.Liil.^*h^din'{rrriftrin ftro tzav oresent aroumentscleartv. substantiate/^\t
\cognitiveskittsembodiedwithin thekeypresentargumentsclearty,substantiateI \
- -:^-rrr:rl iL:--^r-+:^^-L:^:^parhnoint end ufilize fhe hasirs of a / ,r\
..\co[nitivestrategies.Withthisretationshipneachpoint,and utilizethe basicsofa/"*,*\.:mi-nd,t is entirJlyproperandworthwhite ostylemanualwhen constructingpaper./. S NSconsider omeof ti.,"oeneralareas n which Co[tege-leve[ritingis largetyreeofN","$eiticottegean0 tooo so Inrelauvety norl\\;Successfutacademicpreparationfor^-f'periodsof time.Studentsneed o,know \'\cottegeisgroundedin'twoimportant')5how topre-write,ow to edit,and.how(N.dimensions-lkuycognitivestiategies\tore-writeapiecebeforet issubmitted\)tandcontentknowted-ge.Understand'ingand, often,afterit has been submitted\landmasteringkeyconientknowtedgeionce andfeedbackhasbeenprovided.\ o\ achieved hrouoh the exerciseof broaderCottegewriting requiresstudents to|-,ci\:consideromeofthegeneralareasn whichLotteqe-tevetrlungIs targetyreeorNg.-\studentsneed strong-groundingn contento._grammatical, pelling,nd usageerrors.\tR:'
rJthatsfoundationalo the't:ltt-1loln(fusearcn:cottegecoursesincreasinglyrequire\-a*of academicisciptines'he?:",f9i1l]: \lstudentso beabteodentify"nuuiitir"ir s
,ffi.,.]ffH'.i'ilT,','J"";";":";i:;,'::i';:Vstudentsobeabteodentirvndtitize,\-\^
minevetoping,intng',ti'ri!appropriatestrategiesandmeihodologies,S"$q[$
andkey cognitivestrategiesasbeeri;;;toexptoreandanswerprobtemsandtoelsewherendwitt not berepeatedn depthconductesearchnarangeofquestions'Ir'\t*\'t"\
ho,o lDrrncfnr; Elrnrrrn e, cr,rltinn ,.r.lnilodo so,studgntsmustbe abtgto*..NN
here(Bransford,rown,&Cocking,oooi.::qo5o'sruoentstlrust ue dutetu{'\evaluateheappropriatenessfavariety'rt\In ordertoittustratetheacademicofsourcematerialand thensynthesizeiNknowtedgeandskittsnecessaryor coltegeandncorporatehe materialintoapapersuccess,iUriefiscussionofhe(eystructur6s,orreport'They mustalso be ableto.on.*pir,andknowtedge ofcore academicaccessvariety of typesof-informationsubjectsspresentede[ow.Thispresentationfrom a rangeof [ocations,ormats, andisnota substitute or a comprehensiveistingsourceenvironments-of essentialacademicknowledge and skills.
t4RedefiningColtegeReadiness

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->