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Published by Ayu Pratiwi

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Published by: Ayu Pratiwi on Dec 11, 2012
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see  Epidemic (disambiguation). 
(from Greek 
upon +
people) is aclassification of a disease that appears as new cases in a given humanpopulation, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is"expected," based on recent experience (the number of new cases in thepopulation during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate"). (Anepizootic is the same thing but for an animal population.) The disease may or may not be contagious.
Defining an epidemic can be subjective, depending in part on what is "expected". An epidemic may be restricted to one locale (an outbreak), more general (an"epidemic") or even global(pandemic). Because it is based on what is "expected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like rabies may beclassified as an "epidemic," while many cases of a common disease (like thecommon cold) would not.[edit]
Endemic diseases
Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in thepopulation are said to be"endemic." An example of an endemic disease is malaria in some parts of   Africa (for example, Liberia)in which a large portion of  the population is expected to get malaria at some point in their lifetimes.
Non-infectious disease usage
The term "epidemic" is often used in a sense to refer to widespread and growingsocietal problems, for example, in discussions of  obesity, mental illness or  drug addiction.It can also be used metaphorically to relate a type of problem like thosementioned above.[edit]
Notable epidemics through history
It has been suggested that 
 be merged into this article or section.(Discuss) 
Famous examples of epidemics include the bubonic plague epidemic of  Medieval  Europe known as
,and the Great Influenza Pandemic which coincided with the end of  World War I.  [edit]
Factors stimulating new epidemics
Factors that have been described by Mark Woolhouse and Sonya Gowtage- Sequeria to stimulate the rise of new epidemics 
 include:1. Alterations in agricultural practices and land use2. Changes in society and human demographics  3. Poor population health (e.g. malnutrition, HIV, ...)4. Hospitals and medical procedures5. Evolution of the pathogen (e.g. increased virulence, drug resistance,) 6.Contamination of water supplies and food sources 7. International travel8. Failure of public health programs9. International trade10.Climate change  Several other factors have also been mentioned in different reports, such as thereport by professor   Andy Dobson 
 and the report by professor   Akilesh Mishra 
.These include :1. Reduced levels of  biodiversity (e.g. through environmental destruction) 2. Bad urban planning  [edit]
Pre-emptive measures
To protect us against the emergence of new epidemics, several preemptivemeasures have been proposed by professor  Nina Marano 
,and  Andy Dobson.  These include:
To eat less food containing animal protein (eg meat,milk, milk-derivates) To eat local food  To eat crops according to the seasonTo make agriculture more efficient To avoid destruction of the rainforest  To be prepared to pay a higher price for  meat  In addition, certain other measures are known to reduce the beneficial factorsfound above. As such, the measures would also decrease the possibleemergence of new epidemics. These measures are:Population control measuresImproving the urban planning  [edit]
Renewed concern
In August 2007, the World Health Organization reported an unprecedented rate of propagation of  infectious diseases.
 WHO warns of global epidemic risk.BBC News (23 August 2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-05. 
See also
External links

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