people) is aclassification of a diseasethat appears as new cases in a given humanpopulation, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is"expected," based on recent experience (the number of new cases in thepopulation during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate"). (Anepizooticis the same thing but for an animal population.) The disease may or may not be contagious.
Defining an epidemic can be subjective, depending in part on what is "expected". An epidemic may be restricted to one locale (an outbreak), more general (an"epidemic") or even global(pandemic). Because it is based on what is "expected"or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like rabies may beclassified as an "epidemic," while many cases of a common disease (like thecommon cold) would not.
Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in thepopulation are said to be"endemic." An example of an endemic disease ismalariain some parts of Africa(for example,Liberia)in which a large portion of the population is expected to get malaria at some point in their lifetimes.
The term "epidemic" is often used in a sense to refer to widespread and growingsocietalproblems, for example, in discussions of obesity,mental illnessor drugaddiction.It can also be used metaphorically to relate a type of problem like thosementioned above.
include:1. Alterations in agricultural practices and land use2. Changes in society and humandemographics3. Poor population health (e.g. malnutrition, HIV, ...)4. Hospitals and medical procedures5. Evolution of the pathogen (e.g. increasedvirulence,drug resistance,)6.Contaminationof water supplies and food sources7. International travel8. Failure of public health programs9. International trade10.Climate changeSeveral other factors have also been mentioned in different reports, such as thereport by professor Andy Dobson
To eat less food containinganimal protein(egmeat,milk, milk-derivates)To eatlocal foodTo eat crops according to the seasonTo makeagriculturemore efficientTo avoid destruction of therainforestTo be prepared to pay a higher price for meatIn addition, certain other measures are known to reduce the beneficial factorsfound above. As such, the measures would also decrease the possibleemergence of new epidemics. These measures are:Population controlmeasuresImproving theurban planning