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FSC Math EX_4.3

FSC Math EX_4.3

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Published by: jindafridi on Dec 11, 2012
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yx5 10 15 –5 –1051015 –5
(-2,4)(5,11)

yx5 10 –5510 –5
(3,-2)(2,7)
yx5 10 –5510 –5
(4,6)(4,8)
mathcity.org
Merging man and maths

Exercise 4.3 (Solutions)

Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12
Available online @ http://www.mathcity.org, Version: 1.1.2

³
Inclination of a Line:
The angle
(0180)
a a
£ <
o o
measure anti-clockwise from positive
x
-
axis to the straight line
l
is called
inclination
of a line
l
.
³
Slope or Gradient of Line
The slope
m
of the line
l
is defined by:tan
m
a
=
If
11
(,)
A x y
and
22
(,)
B x y
be any twodistinct points on the line
l
then
2121
y ym x x
-=-
1212
y y x x
-=-

See proof on book at page: 191
³
Note:

l
is horizontal, iff
0
m
=

(0)
a
=
o
Q

l
is vertical, iff
m
=¥
i.e.
m
is not defined.
(90)
a
=
o
Q
If slope of
AB
= slope of
BC
, then the points ,
A B
and
are collineari.e. lie on the same line.
³
Theorem
The two lines
1
l
and
2
l
with respective slopes
1
m
and
2
m
are(i)

Parallel iff
12
m m
=
(ii)

Perpendicular iff
12
1
m m
= -
or
12
1
mm
= -

³
Question # 1(i)
(2,4)
-
; (5,11)

Slope
2121
y ym x x
-=-
11452
-=+
717
= =
Since
tan1
m
a
= =

1
tan(1)
a
-
Þ =
45
=
o

(ii)
(3,2)
-
; (2,7)Slope
2121
y ym x x
-=-
7223
+=-
991
= = --
Since
tan9
m
a
= =-
tan9
a
Þ - =

( )
tan1809
a
Þ - =

( )
1
180tan9
a
-
Þ - =

1808340
a
¢Þ - =
o

1808340
a
¢Þ = -
o

9620
a
¢Þ =
o

(ii)
(4,6) ; (4,8)Slope
2121
y ym x x
-=-
8644
-=-
20
= =¥
Sincetan
m
a
= =¥

1
tan()
a
-
Þ = ¥
90
=
o

Bx
2
y
2

()
, Ax
1
y
1

()
,
a

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 -
2

A B
³
Question # 2
Since (8,6)
A
, (4,2)
B
-
and (2,6)
- -
are vertices of triangle therefore
(i)
Slope of side
AB
=264148123
- -= =- - -
Slope of side6284242
BC
- - -= = = -- +
Slope of side6612682105
CA
+= = =+

(ii)
Let ,
D
and
are midpoints of sides
AB
,
BC
and
CA
respectively.

ThenCoordinate of 8462,22
D
- +æ ö=ç ÷è ø
48,22
æ ö=ç ÷è ø
( )
2,4
=
Coordinate of 4226,22
E
- - -æ ö=ç ÷è ø
64,22
- -æ ö=ç ÷è ø
( )
3,2
= - -
Coordinate of 286660,,2222
- + - +æ ö æ ö= =ç ÷ ç ÷è ø è ø
( )
3,0
=
Hence Slope of median
AE
=
2683811
- - -=- - -
811
=
Slope of median022347
BF
- -= =+
Slope of median461052242
CD
+= = =+

(iii)
Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of a triangle therefore

Slope of altitude from vertex111slope of side 44
A BC
- -= = =-
Slope of altitude from vertex1156slope of side 65
B AC
- -= = =-
Slope of altitude from vertex1131slope of side3
AB
- -= = = -

³
Question # 3

(a)
Let (1,3)
A
- -
, (1,5)
B
and (2,9)
be given pointsSlope of 5384112
AB
+= = =+
Slope of 9544211
BC
-= = =-
Since slope of
AB
=
slope of
BC
Therefore ,
A B
and
lie on the same line.
(b) & (c)
Do yourself as above
(d)
Let (,2),(,)
A a b B c a b
+
and (2,2)
C c a a
-
be given points.Slope of ()2
a b b a b ABc a c a
+ - -= =- -
Slope of 2()2(2)2
a a b a a b a b BC c a c c a c c a
- + - - -= = =- - - - -
Since slope of
AB
=
slope of
BC
Therefore ,
A B
and
lie on the same line.
A B D E  A B

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 -
3

³
Question # 4
Since (7,3)
A
, (,6)
B
-
, (4,5)
-
and (6,4)
D
-
Therefore slope of
1
63977
AB mk
- - -= = =- -
Slope of
2
45116422
CD m
- -= = = =- + -

(i)
If
AB
and
CD
are parallel then
12
m m
=
9172
-Þ =-
187
Þ - = -
187
Þ = - +

11
Þ =-

(ii)
If
AB
and
CD
are perpendicular then
12
1
m m
= -
91172
-æ öæ öÞ = -ç ÷ç ÷-è øè ø
92(7)
Þ - = - -
9214
Þ = -
291423
Þ = + =
232
Þ =

³
Question # 5
Since (6,1),(2,7)
A B
and (6,7)
- -
are vertices of triangle thereforeSlope of
AB

1
71632642
m
-= = = =-- -
Slope of
BC

2
771276284
m
- - -= = = =- - -
Slope of
CA

3
178266123
m
+= = = =+
Since
13
32123
m m
æ öæ ö= - = -ç ÷ç ÷è øè ø

Þ
The triangle
ABC
is a right triangle with
90
m A
Ð =
o

³
Question # 6
Let (,)
D a b
be a fourth vertex of the parallelogram.Slope of 21312793
AB
+= = = -- - -
Slope of 422123
BC
-= =+
Slope of 41
bCDa
-=-
Slope of 17
b DAa
- -=-
Since
ABCD
is a parallelogram thereforeSlope of
AB
=
Slope of
CD
1431
ba
-Þ - =-
(1)3(4)
a b
Þ - - = -
13120
a b
Þ - + - + =
3130.............()
a b i
Þ - - + =
Also slope of
BC
=
slope of
DA
2137
ba
- -Þ =-
2(7)3(1)
a b
Þ - = - -
14233
a b
Þ - =- -
142330
a b
Þ - + + =
23170.............()
a b ii
Þ - + + =

A
(7,-1)
B
(-2,2)
(1,4)
D
(a,b)
REMEMBER
The symbols(
i
)
P
stands for ‘parallel”(
ii
)
P
stands for “not parallel”(
iii
)
^
stands for “perpendicular”

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