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Homologus Recombination

Homologus Recombination

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Published by kvicto

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Published by: kvicto on Dec 12, 2012
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Homologous recombination
is a type of genetic recombinationin whichnucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.Homologous recombination isconservedacross all threedomainsof life as well asviruses,  suggesting that it is a nearly universal biological mechanism.Homologous recombination is most widely used by cells to accuratelyrepair harmful breaks thatoccur on both strands of DNA, known as double-strand breaks. It also produces newcombinations of DNA sequences during meiosis,the process by whicheukaryotes makegamete  cells, likespermandegg cellsin animals. These new combinations of DNA representgenetic variationin offspring, which in turn enables populations toadapt during the course of  evolution. Homologous recombination is also used inhorizontal gene transfer to exchange genetic material between different strains and species of bacteria andviruses.After a double-strand break occurs, sections of DNA around the5' endsof the break are cut awayin a process called
. In the
 strand invasion
, an overhanging 3' endof the broken DNA molecule then "invades" a similar or identical DNA molecule that is not broken. After strandinvasion, one or two cross-shaped structures calledHolliday junctions connect the two DNA molecules. The type of homologous recombination that occurs in meiosis results in either chromosomal crossover  or non-crossover. Homologous recombination that occurs during DNArepair tends to result in non-crossover products, in effect restoring the damaged DNA moleculeas it existed before the double-strand break.DNA exchange is initiated by nicks at the same position on the parental DNA molecules. Thenicked strands partially unwind and each invades the other molecule by pairing with thecomplementary unbroken strand. Ligation of the broken strands produces a cross-strandintermediate known as a Holiday junction.At this point, the DNA molecules need to be separated or resolved using one model, the duplexesrevolve around their connection point. Another revolution aligns the strands for cutting andresealing to form separate duplexes. The resulting two double-stranded molecules which consistof exchanged segments, are now resolved.Another version of homologus recombination Necessary ingredientsTwo DNA molecules with similar or almost identical base pair (homologus sequences)

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