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Haverkost and Gardner 2009

Haverkost and Gardner 2009

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Published by t_haverkost
J. Parasitol., 95(3), 2009, pp. 695–701 American Society of Parasitologists 2009

A REDESCRIPTION OF THREE SPECIES OF MONOECOCESTUS (CESTODA: ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE) INCLUDING MONOECOCESTUS THRELKELDI BASED ON NEW MATERIAL
Terry R. Haverkost and Scott L. Gardner*
The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0514. e-mail: slg@unl.edu
ABSTRACT: Because we have new and detailed data on species in the genus, herein we redescribe both Monoeco
J. Parasitol., 95(3), 2009, pp. 695–701 American Society of Parasitologists 2009

A REDESCRIPTION OF THREE SPECIES OF MONOECOCESTUS (CESTODA: ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE) INCLUDING MONOECOCESTUS THRELKELDI BASED ON NEW MATERIAL
Terry R. Haverkost and Scott L. Gardner*
The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0514. e-mail: slg@unl.edu
ABSTRACT: Because we have new and detailed data on species in the genus, herein we redescribe both Monoeco

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Published by: t_haverkost on Dec 12, 2012
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695
 J. Parasitol.,
95(3), 2009, pp. 695–701
American Society of Parasitologists 2009
A REDESCRIPTION OF THREE SPECIES OF
MONOECOCESTUS 
(CESTODA: ANOPLOCEPHALIDAE) INCLUDING
MONOECOCESTUS THRELKELDI 
BASED ON NEW MATERIAL
Terry R. Haverkost and Scott L. Gardner
*
The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0514.
e-mail: slg@unl.edu 
ABSTRACT
: Because we have new and detailed data on species in the genus, herein we redescribe both
Monoecocestus macro-bursatus
and
M. minor 
based on existing museum specimens. We also redescribe
M. threlkeldi
(Parra, 1952) using materialcollected in Bolivia. Based on the specimens representing
M. thelkeldi
, we affirm that
Perutaenia
Parra, 1953 should remain a junior synonym of 
Monoecocestus
.
After an examination of the type material, Beveridge (1994)considered
Perutaenia
a junior synonym of 
Monoecocestus
Beddard, 1914. The type material of 
M. threlkeldi
, the typespecies of 
Perutaenia
, was admittedly of marginal quality, butthe key character in his decision (vagina entering genital atriumanterior to cirrus sac) was clearly seen in mature proglottids.The type specimens of 
M. thelkeldi
do not have gravid seg-ments, and it is likely that measurements based on these spec-imens do not reflect those seen in fully gravid specimens. Fora more-solid taxonomic determination to be made, additionalgravid specimens representing this species are necessary.In 1985, research teams from the Museum of SouthwesternBiology (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM) andthe American Museum of Natural History (New York, NY)were surveying mammals and their parasites throughout low-land Bolivia. During this study, 1 specimen of 
Holochilus bras-iliensis
(Desmarest, 1819) was collected by S.L.G. and foundto host over 50 anoplocephalid cestodes throughout its smallintestine.This paper redescribes
M. thelkeldi
based on specimens ob-tained from
H. brasilensis
. In addition, we provide new mea-surements and redescriptions from museum specimens of 
M.macrobursatus
Rego, 1961 and
M. minor 
Rego, 1960, 2 speciesclosely resembling
M. thelkeldi
.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All specimens of mammals that were collected were processed usingstandard methods (Gardner, 1996). Voucher specimens of the hosts arehoused at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in NewYork City, New York, or at the Museum of Southwest Biology (MSB)at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Rodentswere collected in the field, and necropsy was performed immediately afterdeath. The intestinal tract was opened via transverse cut with blunt-nosedscissors in saline solution, cestodes recovered were immediately relaxedin fresh river water, and then immediately killed and fixed in either 10%formalin solution (v/v) or 70% ethanol. Specimens were preserved, trans-ported, and stored in the same solution as that used for fixation. Speci-mens were stained in Semichon’s acetic carmine, dehydrated in an ethanolseries, cleared in cedarwood oil and xylene, and mounted on slides inDamar gum. After staining, the tegument and ventral or dorsal longitu-dinal muscles were removed to allow for a better view of the internalorgans. Voucher specimens examined, representing
M. minor 
and
M. ma-crobursatus
, were loaned from the Colec¸a˜o Helmintologica do InstitutoOswaldo Cruz (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.All measurements of individual proglottids were taken by first drawingReceived 22 August 2008; revised 9 October 2008; accepted 5 No-vember 2008.* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
DOI: 10.1645/GE-1830.1
the proglottid with the aid of a drawing tube, digitizing the drawing, andmeasuring the digitized image using SigmaScan Pro 5.0 (SPSS, Chicago,Illinois). Measurements of the strobila were made with an ocular microm-eter on a Jenaval compound microscope (Zeiss Corp., Jena, Germany).Measurements of eggs were made with the compound microscope usingSigmaScan Pro 5.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois) from digital images. Mea-surements were taken from 1–2 proglottids per specimen. Scolex lengthwas measured from the anterior of the scolex to the posterior margin of the suckers. Neck length was measured from the posterior margin of thesuckers to the beginning of visible segmentation. Sinistral–dextral alter-nation of the genital atrium among segments was recorded or standardizedas the number of changes per 100 proglottids. The index of asymmetrywas calculated from the ratio of the distance between the midpoint of thevitelline gland and the poral extreme/the total width of the proglottid (Satoet al., 1993). Testis distribution was measured as the transverse distancebetween the two most-distal testes in the proglottid (Haukisalmi and Hent-tonen, 2003). Maximum cirrus sac measurements were not recorded be-cause the cirrus is usually everted, likely skewing these measurements.All measurements are provided in micrometers, unless otherwise speci-fied, and include the range, followed by the mean in parentheses, and thenumber of measurements if different from that initially given. Selectedmeasurements are shown in Table I.
REDESCRIPTION
Monoecocestus macrobursatus 
Rego, 1961
(Figs. 2, 3, 7)
 Diagnosis (measurements based on voucher specimens, 8 individualsand 10 mature proglottids):
Scolex 280–600 (413, n
ϭ
7) long, 544–840 (701, n
ϭ
7) wide. Suckers face laterally or antero-laterally. Suckers232–468 (323, n
ϭ
27) in diameter. Neck 0–240 (151) long, 372–720(555) wide. Specimens with 62–91 (78, n
ϭ
7) proglottids. Strobilatotal length 9.4–19.6 mm (15.0 mm, n
ϭ
7). Strobila maximum width1.4–2.6 mm (2.2 mm, n
ϭ
7). Immature proglottids 48–176 (96, n
ϭ
7) long, 840–2,040 (1,205, n
ϭ
7) wide. Length/width ratio of immatureproglottids 0.04–0.17 (0.09, n
ϭ
7). Mature proglottids 156–291 (213)long, 1,384–2,243 (2,130) wide. Length/width ratio of mature proglot-tids 0.08–0.18 (0.13). Gravid proglottids 312–811 (629) long, 1,104–2,309 (1,745) wide. Length/width ratio of gravid proglottids 0.15–0.65(0.39). Genital pores alternate regularly, 98–100 (100, n
ϭ
7) switchesper 100 proglottids. Genital peduncle forms as cirrus everts in post-mature proglottids. Testes number 51–53 (52, n
ϭ
2), 22–38 (29, n
ϭ
25) in diameter. Testis distribution 479–508 (494, n
ϭ
2); do not overlaposmoregulatory canals. Testes overlap cirrus sac, ovary, seminal recep-tacle, and vitelline gland dorsally. Cirrus with spines. Cirrus sac 191–388 (273) long, 95–213 (151) wide. Genital atrium deep, often extend-ing to osmoregulatory canals. Cirrus sac extends mediad beyond canals.Internal seminal vesicle present. Vas deferens a dilated tube surroundedby dark-staining cellular coating. Seminal receptacle 86–108 (95, n
ϭ
4) long, 74–99 (90, n
ϭ
4) wide. Vitelline gland 69–136 (110) long,177–313 (232) wide. Index of asymmetry 0.44–0.54 (0.48). Ovary 117–237 (182) long, 446–833 (589) wide. Vagina indistinct in mature pro-glottids. Vagina enters genital atrium anterior to cirrus sac. Uterus ven-tral to seminal receptacle and testes, dorsal to ovary. Uterus crossesventral excretory canals ventrally and dorsally. Gravid uterus reticulate,with anterior and posterior diverticula, becoming sac-like later in de-velopment. Eggs 45–70 (57, n
ϭ
27) in diameter. Embryophore in form
 
696 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 95, NO. 3, JUNE 2009
F
IGURES
1–4. (
1
)
Monoecocestus minor 
, Scolex. CHIOC 27.719B. (
2
)
Monoecocestus macrobursatus
, scolex. CHIOC 27.734A. (
3
)
Mono-ecocestus macrobursatus
, mature proglottid. CHIOC 27.734A. (
4
)
Monoecocestus minor 
, mature proglottid. CHIOC 27.720A. Scale bars
ϭ
0.1mm
 
HAVERKOST AND GARDNER—
MONOECOCESTUS 
SPP. REDESCRIPTION 697
F
IGURE
5.
Monoecocestus threlk-eldi
. (
A
) Full strobila HWML60426E. Scale bar
ϭ
0.5 mm. (
B
)Scolex. HWML 60426I. Scale bar
ϭ
0.1 mm. (
C
) Egg. Scale bar
ϭ
0.01mm. (
D
) Mature proglottid. HWML60426H. Scale bar
ϭ
0.1 mm.of pyriform apparatus, often blunt or with short horns. Genital organscrossing excretory canals dorsally. Dorsal and ventral osmoregulatorycanal present with single transverse canal. Ventral canals 20–66 (45)wide, dorsal canals 6–20 (13) wide, transverse canals 16–23 (20, n
ϭ
2) wide.
Taxonomic summary
 Host: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris
(Linnaeus, 1766).
 Locality:
Angra dos Reis, State of Rio de Janeiro; Salobra and S.Joa˜o (type locality), State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

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