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Prop Fluid

Prop Fluid

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Published by Rahmanullah Hamid

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Rahmanullah Hamid on Dec 12, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/12/2012

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FM200 - GI7/6/02P
ROPERTIES OF
F
LUID
1
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
S
OLIDS AND
F
LUIDS
A solid can resist a shear force with only a finite deformation. If force is maintained, thedeformation is unchanged
Θ
Fixed
τ
U
Solid
TRANSITION
Fluid
τ
A fluid will undergo a continuous deformation due to a shear force.
G
AS AND
L
IQUIDS
Properties : Liquids are more denseGases are more compressible
~10
-8
vibrational energy3.5
×
10
-10
liquidsGasesrepulsionattractiondistance between molecules (m)
In a liquid, molecules are in their equilibrium distance with respect to intermolecular forces andthe motion due to thermal vibration of the molecules is quite small: about equal to the distancebetween molecules. Thus there is some order in the molecular structure.
 
FM200 - GI7/6/02
P
ROPERTIES OF
F
LUID
2
~10
-8 
m
In gases the spacing is large enough so that intermolecular forces are very small; molecules arebasically oscillating with large amplitudes and collisions are common.
R
ELATIONSHI P AND
T
RANSPORT
B
ETWEEN A
L
IQUID AND A
G
AS
e.g. CO2
VVolume Vvapour pressureat 31.1
°
C31.1
°
C75Atm criticalpressureliquidliquid31
°
C48
°
Ccritical temperaturevapourgasvapour liquidideal gas lawabove 32
°
C remainsa gas at all pressuresABCDPressure
At A, pure gas. As pressure increases, liquefaction commences at B. All gas liquefied by C.Constant pressure along BC is the vapour pressure. Steepness of curve CD is evidence of thefact that a liquid is not easily compressed.
 Definition.
The maximum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied is the criticaltemperature, and the corresponding pressure the critical pressure.E.g. For CO
2
, 31.1
°
C and 75 atmospheres
 
FM200 - GI20/11/02P
ROPERTIES OF
F
LUID
3
VAPOUR PRESSURE
waterPmolecules of water
Suppose the pressure is P kN m-2Dalton's Law of Partial PressureP = PA
 
+ PVP = total pressureP
A
= pressure due air (= pressure due to air if it only occupied the space)P
V
= partial pressure due to water molecules (= pressure if only water molecules occupied thespace)Now if a particular temperature at equilibrium molecules of water are leaving in equal numbersto those entering the liquid: the pressure P
V
is then called the saturation vapour pressure.For water at T = 20
°
C PV= 2.34 kN m-2If the vapour pressure < 2.34 kN m-2then water will evaporate,If the vapour pressure > 2.34 kN m-2then molecules will precipitate or condense out.Now as the temperature is raised to say 100
°
C thenP
V
= 101.33 kN m-2= Patmospheric= P at sea leveland the water will boil.
 Application
: Suppose a wind is blowing over a water surface such as a lake or the ocean thenthe heat loss H:HPPUWm
VSATV
 
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