- a condition in which distant delivery prices exceed spot prices, often due to the costsof storing and insuring the underlying commodity. The opposite situation is called backwardation.
The grade below which mineralisation is not included in the assessment of oreresources/reserves.
a method using a weak cyanide solution by which gold or silver grains are extractedfrom ore.
a body of rock containing a concentration of minerals.
drilling to establish accurate estimates of mineral reserves.
the necessary mining of waste rock, along with ore. Measured as the ratio of waste rockto the total amount of rock mined.
a horizontal underground development that follows along the length of a rock formation asopposed to a crosscut, which crosses the rock formation.
- a geologic feature that follows a zigzag fault pattern.
- engineering, procurement and construction.
- engineering, procurement and construction management.
an economic study assessing whether a mineral deposit can be minedprofitably.
a dark, basic, coarse-grained igneous rock.
- clandestine prospector or miner.
- mine, claim or prospect.
the theoretical value of ore determined by applying the assessed grade of metal(s)in the ore by the relevant current market price.
- a geophysical method and developed for ore exploration.
widely accepted standard for reporting mineral resources and ore reserves establishedby the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee.
an orebody shaped like a flute or pipe which can contain diamonds.
ore occurring in the form of soil residue containing secondary oxides of metal, oftenassociated with nickel.
a chemical process for the extraction of valuable minerals from ore.
a mineral deposit in solid rock.
a mining method (common on South African gold mines and European coal mines)involving straight, and narrow, working faces.
a resource whose size and grade have been estimated from sampling at