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Properties of Gas and Liquid Experiment Report

Properties of Gas and Liquid Experiment Report

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Published by Fadh At-Tarf
Properties of Gas and Liquid
Properties of Gas and Liquid

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Published by: Fadh At-Tarf on Dec 13, 2012
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11/21/2014

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1
 
Abstract
 
This experiment is carried out to study the properes of liquid and gas. The experiment is basicallydivided into two parts, Part A and Part B. The rst part, which is Part A is conducted to study theproperes of gas which is to determine the viscosity of the gas. The experiment is done by determiningthe pressure drop by reading the mercury level of manometer at both sides. This part consist of closingthe vacuum pump valve for every 10 seconds aer leng the control tap to exhaust the atmosphere.The viscosity of air, which in this experiment, is the viscosity of air, is determined by using the Poiseuilleformula which has been calculated to give the value of 9.911 x 10-6 Ns/m2 which is 46.65 percentage of error. It is proved that the viscosity of gas is dependent of pressure. The second part, which is part B isconducted to study the properes of liquid and is divided into two parts. The rst part is to determinethe viscosity of liquid and the second part is to determine the density of liquid. The rst part is todetermine the viscosity of the liquid, where in this part glycerine was used. It is done by recording theme taken for the ball bearing which is denser than the glycerine to fall at the boom of the viscometer.Stoke law of drag force is used to determine the viscosity of the liquid and is calculated to give the valueof 14.9878 Ns/m2. It is also proved that the viscosity of liquid is temperature dependent, it increase asthe temperature decreases. The second part is done to determine the density of liquid, which in thisexperiment, methanol is used. This part is basically done by measuring the weight of the pycnometertube containing dislled water and alcohol before and aer it is submerged into the viscometer. Thebuoyancy correcon formula is used to determine the density of dislled water and methanol whichthen will be compared with the theorecal value. The calculated density of dislled water is 993.319kg/m3 while the calculated density of methanol is 766.79 kg/m3. The experiment is successfullyconducted and completed.
 
 
2
 
Introducon
 
Viscosity is a measure of a uid's resistance to ow and it describes the internal fricon of a movinguid. A uid with large viscosity resists moon because its molecular makeup gives it a lot of internalfricon. A uid with low viscosity ows easily because its molecular makeup results in very lile friconwhen it is in moon. The word viscosity drives from the Lan word
viscum
which is a type of a glue thatmade from berries and used to coat lime-twigs to catch birds. Viscosity is denoted as µ (mu) is actuallyrepresent a uid property that indicates the resistance of uid to ow.In industrial, many plant operaons involved gases and liquids and because of that engineer veryconcerns with the transformaon and distribuon of materials in bulk. Engineers need to design a plantthat can achieve not only nal product but high quality nal product by take into account the physicaland chemical properes of these materials. Hence, engineer need to understand and know the physicaland chemical properes of these materials.Even though it is supposed the thermodynamic properes of gases and liquids are known withaccuracy sucient for praccally all technological purposes, this is not in fact the case. As an expert inthis eld, they need to know the basic concept how this properes will aect the process. Althoughsuch properes can somemes be esmated from thermodynamic models, it is oen essenal tomeasure key properes in order to conrm or opmize the available models. Furthermore, thedevelopment to a large extent upon the availability of appropriate experimental data.
Aims / Objecve
 
This experiment is divided into two parts which area Part A and Part B. For Part A, the objecve is todetermine the viscosity of gases and also to observe the eect of pressure on the properes of gases.Meanwhile for Part B, the objecve is to (i) determine the viscosity and (ii) the density of liquid withdierent temperature and to observe the eect of temperature on the properes of liquid. Besides that,the experiment is conducted to compare the theorecal value of viscosity of gases and liquids withexperimental value obtained.
 
3
 
Theory
 
Viscosity is a measurement of how resistant a uid is to aempts to move through it. A uid with a lowviscosity is said to be "thin," while a high viscosity uid is said to be "thick." It is easier to move through alow viscosity uid than a high viscosity uid. When two layers of uids move past one another with acertain relave velocity, both layers experience a force which tends to oppose their relave moons. Themagnitude of this force is reliant on two variable, which are the area of the plane of contact between thelayers and the velocity gradient normal to it, because of that total of force (f) required is assumed to bedirectly proporonal to the area (A) of the layers in contact and the velocity dierence (v) between thelayers. However, the force is inversely proporonal to the distance (d) between the layers.Mathematically, equation of viscosity (n) is derived from equaon below;
 
 = 
 
Where;η = viscosity (

)
 
A = area (A) of the layers in contact (m)
 
V = velocity dierence (m/s)
 
D = distance between the layers
 
F = total force (N/m)
 
The SI Units for viscosity of kg m
-1
s
-1
. However, the unit that is typically used in industrial iscalled the poise (P), where P = 1 gram cm
-1
s
-1
. For gas viscosity, it usually used micropoise (µP) as it units,meanwhile for liquid viscosity is cenpoise (cP).
 

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