continued until we came to a Gm-C – Biquad pair that actually worked, and proceeded tooptimize it.The optimization process started with mathematical analysis of the optimal boundaries. Weused MATLAB to understand, given the transconductance range of our filter, what the centerfrequency, the adjustable range, and the gain of our final filter would be. This was necessary tosee if the filter could meet the specs. Once the analysis was done, we went to Cadence with theboundaries provided by the analytical results, and optimizing until we met our specs.
Theory & Analysis
A transconductance cell is a device, usually realized as an OTA, that converts voltage intocurrent.
Figure 1 - Gm-C Symbol and Ideal Representation Figure 2 - 2nd Order Biquad
The output is
. The ideal GmC has infinite input impedance, and zero outputimpedance, much like an ideal op-amp. It is important to note that it is possible to use GmC’s ina multitude of ways to realize circuit elements (resistor, capacitor, inductor) and therefore, it ispossible to create RLC filters using Gm-C’s in this way. However, we opted for a differentapproach of using them in feedback structures that realize certain transfer functions whichyield to band-pass properties. Although there are numerous options, one topology that wassimple and efficient is shown in figure 2, presented in .There are two reasons why this biquad is particularly attractive. One is that it only uses fiveelements (three GmC’s, 2 capacitors). The other is that the transfer function it gives can be usedto realize all types of filters.The transfer function can be derived using KCL at all three output nodes, assuming an idealGmC. This analysis gives the following transfer function: