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Binomial Theorem

# Binomial Theorem

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12/14/2012

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BINOMIAL THEOREM
--1
Binomial :-
An expression which contains two terms is called a binomial
Pascal Triangle:
-
Index coefficient12345 1 5 10 10 5 1
In each row 1
st
and last elements ‘1’ remaining terms are obtained by adding the 2terms
Theorem :-
If n is a positive integer x, a are real number then
122330123
()...
n n n n n nn
x a nc x nc x a nc x a nc x a nc a
+ = + + + + +

Note 1:
This theorem is called binomial theorem for positive integer index.
Note 2:
This expansion contains (n +1) terms
Note 3:
In the expansion the sum of powers of x and ‘a’ in each term is equal to n.
Note 4:
In this expansion the power term x is decreased by 1 and the power of a isincreased by 1 except in the first term
111211
3
1
3
14
6
41

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Notes 5:
In this expansion (1)
th
+
term is called general term denoted by
1
+
where
1
.
n r r
T nc x a
+
=

Note 6:
In this expansion the coefficients
012
,,............
n
nc nc nc nc
are called binomialcoefficients and these are simply denoted by
012
,,.....
n
C C C

Note 7:

0
(),
nn n r
x a nc x a
=
+ =

Note 8 :

0
()(1).
nn n n r
x a nc x a
=
=

Note 9 :

0
(1)
nn
x nc x
=
+ =

Note 10 :

0
(1)(1)
nn n
x nc x
=
=

Note 11 :

Expansion Nature of n No. of terms
()()
n n
x a x a
+ +
even12
n
+
Odd
12
n
+
()()
n n
x a x a
+
even
2
n
Odd12
n
+

Note 12:
()()
n n
x a a x
+ = +
even though the above expansion are equal
1
+
in
1
()
n
x a
+
+
in ()
n
a x
+

Note 13 :

()1(1)
nn n n n
xa x a a a
+ = + = +
where
xa
=

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Note 14:
The number of terms in the expansion ()()()()
n n n n
x a x a x ai x ai
+ + + + +
is
44
n
+
where [ . ] is greatest integer function
Note 15:

0
()[()]()
nn n n r
a b c a b c nc a b c
=
+ + = + + = +

Note 16:
Number of terms of ()
n
a b c
+ +
is
2
(2)
n
+

Note 17 :
Number of terms of
123
(....)
n
a a a a
+ + + +
is
1
(1)
n r c
+
The coefficient of
m
x
in
n pq
bax x
+
is
n r n
nc a b
where
np m p q
=+
The constant term in
n pq
bax x
+
is
n r
nc a b
where
np p q
=+

Middle term(s) of
()
n
x a
+

Case (i) If n is even
Here number of terms = n + 1
1
n
+
is oddHence only one middle term exist
middle term
112
th
n
+ +
=
term
12
th
n
= +
term
Case (ii) If n is odd
Number term n + 1 is even
two middle terms
13,22
th th
n n
+ +
terms