Rules of thumb for pumps 2-7
If you want to know a pumps capabilities, the rules are simple. Look at the manufacturer'spublished pump curve. The problem is that you do not always have the curve available. Pumpcompanies test their pump to determine its performance, they have no need for general guidelines or "rules of thumb."Over the years I've accumulated many of these rules to help me estimate pump performance.Here are a few of them:PUMP BASICS
How to estimate the shut off head of a pump (inch sizes)
At 1750 rpm. Shut off head = Diameter of the impeller squared
At 3500 rpm. Shut off head = Diameter of the impeller squared x 4
For other speeds you can use the formula : Shut Off Head = D
x (new rpm / 1750)
Estimating metric head is a little bit more involved, but it still works:
Measure the shaft in mm. ( as an example:250 mm)
Mark off two places. (2,5)
Square the number. (6,25)
For 1450 rpm, multiply by 3 (18,75)
Add 10 % for the answer in meters. (21 meters)
NOTE: For 3000 rpm, you'd multiply by 12 instead of 3. Although you canestimate shutoff head with these formulas you cannot estimate the pump capacity.you'll need the pump curves for that.
The pumps best efficiency point (B.E.P.) is between 80% and 85% of the shut off head.At this point there is little to no radial thrust on the impeller. Also the "power in" isclosest to the "power out".
ratio should be below 60 (2.0 in metric) to prevent excessive shaft bending. Tocalculate it for end suction centrifugal pumps :
L = length of the shaft from the center of the inboard bearing to the center of theimpeller (inches or millimeters). Caution: do not use centimeters, the numberswill come out wrong.
D = diameter of the shaft (under the sleeve) in the stuffing box area (inches ormillimeters) Do not use centimeters.
Since most shaft materials have a similar modulus of elasticity, changing shaft materialswill not prevent shaft bending when you operate off of the B.E.P. Lowering the L
isthe only logical and efficient solution. When pump manufacturers discuss operating off of the B.E.P. they relate problems to the heat that will build up in a minimum flowcondition and ignore the problems with shaft bending.
A double suction pump can run with 27% less N.P.S.H. or at a 40% faster speed withoutcavitating.
If you double the speed of a pump you'll get twice the capacity, four times the head and itwill take eight times the horsepower to do it.