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Published by Yinka Akinkunmi

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Published by: Yinka Akinkunmi on Dec 14, 2012
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byM. L. Tartavel, P.Eng &S. Benzimra, P.Eng
Contents:IntroductionInput DataPreliminary EvaluationShroud modelingPoint to Point calculationsOther ControlsIntroduction
There is a growing interest in the fabrication of large size impellers at minimum cost. In the past few years, users came to realize that pump manufacturers offer replacement spare parts at exorbitant prices. We responded to this increased demand by developing our own software to provide users withefficient impellers at a fraction of the cost . Although most applications revolve around large water pumping facilities, our services extend practically to all centrifugal pumps, regardless of size.The following is a brief description of the detailed engineering work to be carried out on a case by case basis.
Input Data
The user provides the pump's performance curve showing flow, head, efficiency and
(Net PositiveSuction Head), as received from the pump manufacturer. In some instances the pump's test curve will berequired to confirm the actual position of the
(Best Efficiency Point) and the design
(SpecificSpeed, dimensionless) as precisely as possible.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: IMPELLER REVERSE DESIGNhttp://webhome.idirect.com/~benzimra/Pump_Gen.ht1 of 410/31/2011 10:28 AM
In order to appreciate some of the most critical impeller characteristics, a series of non-destructivemeasurements shall be performed on the impeller, at the Client's expense. We could provide anyassistance, as required.For a detailed list of data required,
click here
Preliminary Evaluation
Based on
equation, acomprehensive computer program was developedto simulate the design parameters used in theconstruction of the original impeller, at the
pump's rated conditions
. This reverseengineering procedure closely follows thetheoretical and practical findings of a number of leading authors in the field, most particularly
 Alexey J. Stepanof
, whose seminal work constitutes the basis of pump design to this day.Since all pumps are actually designed for onesingle operating point (
), it is of paramountimportance to identify this point with the greatestaccuracy. It is generally difficult to pinpoint thesespecific conditions, by looking graphically at theperformance curve, especially when the curve issignificantly steep.A small error in the selection of this critical pointwould lead to a substantial deviation in theangular profile of the blade. A
, based on about a dozen points from thecurve leads to a polynomial expression of highorder on which several mathematical operationscan be performed with the desired accuracy.The accurate positioning of the tangent to theBEP enables the drawing of the
discharge vanetriangle
(Euler's triangle), thus setting the outletangle of the blade in relation to the impeller rim.Similarly, the inlet vane angle is first approximated on the basis of the appropriate range of 
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: IMPELLER REVERSE DESIGNhttp://webhome.idirect.com/~benzimra/Pump_Gen.ht2 of 410/31/2011 10:28 AM
, compatible with the type of pump considered. This value is later adjusted separately for both thefront and back shroud vanes.
Shroud modeling
Whereas the inlet and discharge angles are physical characteristics of the impeller in its three dimensionalreality, the pattern maker, at fabrication time, can only use the corresponding
projected values
on ahorizontal plane, normal to the pump shaft.For strictly radial pumps with very low Ns, where both shrouds are essentially normal to the shaft, theactual angular values are obviously equal to the projected values. However, in practically all casesinvolving large pumps, the shape of the impeller shrouds depart significantly from straight vertical lines,especially around the inlet area.Therefore, a considerable difference exists between theactual angular values and their projected counterparts.These differences vary point to point along the length of the vanes, as a function of the
geometric curvature
of the shrouds.It is then necessary to mathematically simulate thecurvature of both shrouds, from the eye of the impeller tothe point of discharge. We found that an
exponentialtype equation
provides the best fit for the shrouds'geometry.In fact, two different equations are used for each shroud(
lower and upper sides
), because at some point towardsthe discharge, there is generally a sharp departure fromthe original curve into an almost linear pattern. This isparticularly so for radial pumps with a Ns lower than3000. But even in the case of essentially linear shrouds,an exponential fit is in order, to properly appreciate theinlet area.The coefficients of these equations are determined by calculus, to ensure a common tangent at thetransition point.
Point to Point Calculations
The impeller is then divided into 360° and, foreach shroud, the actual and projected position of the vane are determined trigonometrically, on
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: IMPELLER REVERSE DESIGNhttp://webhome.idirect.com/~benzimra/Pump_Gen.ht3 of 410/31/2011 10:28 AM

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