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Neet Stuff

Neet Stuff

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Published by: Balasubrahmanya Bhat on Dec 14, 2012
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02/12/2013

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Small-blue-round-cell tumors:
The predominance of blue staining is due the fact that the cells consistpredominantly of nucleus, thus they have scant cytoplasm.
 
 
Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumour
 
Ewing's Sarcoma/PNET
 
Neuroblastoma
 
Medulloblastoma
 
Rhabdomyosarcoma
 
Wilms' tumour
 
Retinoblastoma
 
Small-cell lymphoma
 
Hepatoblastoma - only the anaplastic form has round blue cells.Endogenous chemoattractant- C5aepithelial granuloma caused by- CD4 helper T cells1st sign of wound injury- capillary dilatationmc site of metastatic calcification- lungscalcification begins in- mitochondria[ except in kidney- basement membrane ]Non-enzymatic antioxidants- Vit E- cysteine, glutathione- Albumin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin..most abundant glycoprotein in basemnt membrane- Lamininmost imp organelle in apoptosis- mitochondriasure sign of malignancy- metastasis
Tumor markers:
 Medullary ca thyroid- calcitoninLiver cell ca- AFPCa. colon, pancreas, lung- CEA, CA 19,9, p53, RAS mutationsProstate ca- prostatic spcfc Ag, prostatic acid phosphataseOvarian ca- CA 125Multiple myeloma- immunoglobulinsMelanoma- HMB 45
 
'popcorn' calcification- chondrosarcomaCD4 : CD8 ratio - 2:1CD45- leucocyte common antigenCD16 - NK cellsmost frequent gene in autoimmunity- PTPN 22Best method for diagnosing amyloidosis- rectal biopsysecondary amyloidosis mc a/w- rheumatoid arthritis [ also k/a reactive systemic amyloidosis ]''full house phenomenon'' seen in- SLE nephropathyMCC of intracranial metastasis- Ca lungMCC of hepatic metastasis - Bronchogenic carcinomaMCC of hepatic mets from GIT
 –
Colonic caMCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?MCC of HTN in children-A/c GlomerulonephritisMC complication of CSOM- MASTOIDITISMost common extacranial complication of CSOM
Mastoiditis..Most common intracranial complication of CSOM
MeningitisMC ovarian tumour in pregnancy- Teratoma/Dermoid cystMC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis- Knee jointMCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- MycoplasmaMC Glycogen storage disease-
Gaucher’s disease
 MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.MC cause of childhood nephritic syndrom-Minimal change diseaseMC cause of adult nephritic syndrome- FSGSMC cancer-Lung cancerMC cancer in females-Breast cancerMC cause of maternal deaths- Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)MC cause of Blindness in India- CataractMC site of Gastrinoma- Duodenum.MC Paraneoplastic Syndrome- HypercalcemiaMC paraneoplastic endocrinopathy- Cushings syndromeMc presenta
tion of meckel’s
diverticulum
—–
bleedingMc s/e of radiation on heart - pericardial effusion
M.c. Cause of cushing’s disease
- pituitary microadenomaMcc of primary hyperaldosteronism- b/ l cortical hyperplasiaMc aldosterone producing adrenal tumour- u/l adrenal adenoma
 
Mcc of post trauma vegetative state- diffuse axonal injuryMc asso anomaly with coarctation of aorta- bicuspid aortic valveMcc of vasculitis in child- henoch- schonlein purpuraMc feature of aortitis on x-ray- calcified ascending aortaMC intra-abdominal malignancy in children
 –
Neuroblastoma2nd MC intra- abdominal malignancy in children
 –
 
Wilm’s tumor
 MC hepatic malignancy in children
 –
HepatoblastomaMC soft tissue sarcoma
 –
RhabdomyosarcomaMC site for rhabdomyosarcoma
 –
Head and neckMC Pediatric malignancy
 –
ALL2nd MC Pediatric malignancy
 –
Brain tumorMC brain tumor in children
 –
AstrocytomaMC brain tumor in infancy
 –
SupratentoriaMC brain tumor between 1-10 yrs of age
 –
InfratentorialMC brain tumor after 10 yrs of age
 –
SupratentorialMC embryonal brain tumor
 –
MedulloblastomaMC renal mass in neonates
 –
Multicystic renal dysplasiaMC malignant tumor of kidney
 –
 
Wilm’s tumor
 MC TUMOURS IN PARTS OF MEDIASTINUM anterior- thymomasmid- cystposterior- neurogenic tumourMc tumour of mediastinum- neurogenic tumourmost malignant masses of mediastinum- lymphomasMC cause of renal artery stenosis Old age- atherosclerosisYoung(india)- Takayasu arteritisYoung( western world)- fibro muscular dysplasiaMC of eye in AIDS1.Lesion- microvasculopathy of conjunctiva and retina2. Infection- chorioretinitis3. Neoplasm- kaposi sarcoma4. Cause of chorioretinitis- CMV5. Finding in HIV retinopathy- cotton wool spots6. Rx of CMV retinitis- ganciclovir,foscarnetMOST COMMON site in GIT Small bowel carcinoid-ILEUMUlcerative colitis,hirsprung disease- RECTUMPolyps in peutz jegher syndrome,pneumatosiscystoids intestinale
 –
JEJUNUMAmoebic colitis,volvulus- SIGMOID COLON

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