Advanced Communication Networks
Iqbal Uddin Khan
Assignment # 5
Q1. Suppose we need a communication service to transmit real-time voice over the Internet. What featuresof TCP and what features of UDP are appropriate?Ans:
It is for reliable communication as it work against packet loss, but recovery of packets and re-transmission may cause communication overhead and delay in propagation of data. In voicetransmission it is not necessary.
It is a connection less protocol and deliver packets more quickly as there is no process of packetrecovery and has less headers compare to TCP, as packet loss in real time voice transmission is notmuch noticeable up to some extend so UDP is mostly used.Q2. Suppose a user has two browser applications active at the same time, and suppose that the twoapplications are accessing the same server to retrieve HTTP documents at the same time. How does theserver tell the difference between the two applications?Ans: The port number is different for each browser or the tabs opened within it. So the server sending datawill distinguish by the request
s port number.Q3. Consider the operation of non-persistent HTTP and persistent HTTP.
In non-persistent HTTP (version 1.0): Each client-server interaction involves setting up a TCPconnection, carrying out the HTTP exchange, and closing the TCP connection. Let T be the time thatelapses from when a packet is sent from client to server to when the response is received. Find therate at which HTTP exchanges can be made using non-persistent HTTP.Ans: If T is considered to be the time of one way communication then, TCP connection involves 3 step of handshake, 2 steps of packet
s request and receive and last step for connection closing so it will be up to6T.
In persistent HTTP (version 1.1) the TCP connection is kept alive. Find the rate at which HTTPexchanges can be made if the client cannot send an additional request until it receives a response foreach request.Ans: As the initial steps of handshaking will not be repeated, so taking T as time it will be 1T or simply T asclient/server sends and wait for receive without sending any other request.
Repeat part (b) if the client is allowed to pipeline requests, that is, it does not have to wait for aresponse before sending a new request.Ans: As it is sending multiple requests considering R to be number of request and T as time so the time maybe consumed will be R/T seconds.Q4. What is the difference between a physical address, a network address, and a domain name?Ans:
: Is the MAC address of NIC.
: Is the Unique IP of each client within a specific network.
: Are the typical names to identify specific server, for example www.google.com.pk is a
domain name well its IP in WWW cloud is 184.108.40.206.Q5. Suppose that the DNS system used a single centralized database to handle all queries. Compare thiscentralized approach to the distributed approach in terms of reliability, throughput (volume of queries/second that can be processed), query response delay, and maintainability.Ans: Distributed Systems are far more reliable in sense of scalability, security, request handling andRecovering form loss and disaster. So Distributed approach is better than a centralized DNS system.