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Otis Dudley Duncan. Classic Articles

Otis Dudley Duncan. Classic Articles

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Published by Jesús Treviño
Classic Articles:
1. The Measurement of Population Distribution
2. A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes
3. Residential Distribution and Occupational Stratification
Classic Articles:
1. The Measurement of Population Distribution
2. A Methodological Analysis of Segregation Indexes
3. Residential Distribution and Occupational Stratification

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Jesús Treviño on Dec 15, 2012
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Population Investigation Committee
The Measurement of Population DistributionAuthor(s): Otis Dudley DuncanReviewed work(s):Source:
Population Studies,
Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jul., 1957), pp. 27-45Published by:
on behalf of the
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TheMeasurementf PopulationDistribution
By
OTIS DUDLEYDUNCAN
The analysisndexplanationfpatternsfpopulationistributionreproblemsforthedemographer,eographer,umanecologist, nd location conomist.None of these pecialists,owever, as takenresponsibilityorworkingut acomprehensivemethodfordealingwiththe subject. Demographers,nparticular,avegivent littleystematicttention,lthoughhe iteraturesrich n elementaryescriptiveaterialsnpopulation istributionnvariousregions. This paper ttempts summaryfthemajor echniquesf describingandmeasuring opulationistribution,ndicatingomeunresolved roblemsofmethodhatmightwellbethefocus ffurtheresearch.The followings a tentativelassificationfmeasuresfpopulation istribution;itdoes notpurporto be exhaustivendthere s evidentverlappingfsomeofthecategories.A.Spatialmeasures(I)Numbernddensityf inhabitantsy geographicub-divisions(z)Measures f concentration
(3)Measuresfspacing(4)Centrographiceasures(S) Populationotential
B.Categoricalmeasures(i)Rural-urbanndmetropolitan-non-metropolitanlassification(2)Communityize distribution(3)Concentrationy proximityocentres rtodesignateditesWithinhecompassfthispapertispossibleogive onlybriefllustrationsunderheseheadings.
NUMBERSAND DENSITYBYGEOGRAPHICSUB-DIVISIONS
The basic informationmployednmoststudies f population istributionis theensusnumerationfpopulation ygeographicub-divisions f acountryor other territorialnit. Itwillappearbelowthatsummarymeasures fdistributionaydepend heavilyon the arealunitsbywhich populationenumerationsretabulated. Suchunits-geographicub-divisionsfthe totalterritoryver whichdistributionsdescribed-areof threemain types:
(i)
political nits,
2)
unitsonsistingfcombinationsfpoliticalnits,ut notthemselvesoliticalntities,nd(3)unitsspecially elineatedorstatisticalpurposesnotnecessarily onformingopoliticalboundaries. Internationalstudiesfdistributionypicallymploy ountriesndcombinationsf countriesasunits,utthere sinterestswell n themoredetailednalysis hatombinesintra-countryith nternationalomparisons.'
1
GlennT. Trewartha,ACase for PopulationGeography, Annalsof theAssociationf AmericanGeographers,
LIII
(June,
195
3),
pp.
71-97;
Abbott Payson Usher,"The History f Population andSettlementn Eurasia
",
Geographicaleview,x (January,
930),
pp.
II-I 32,
reprintedn DemographicAnalysis, ditedby JosephJ. Spengler ndOtis Dudley Duncan (Glencoe, ll.: The Free Press,
956)
pp.
3-25.
27
This content downloaded on Sat, 15 Dec 2012 00:02:22 AMAll use subject toJSTOR Terms and Conditions
 
z8
OTISDUDLEY DUNCAN
Geographersavedevelopedeveralmethodsfportrayingumbersar-tographicallyuch sthedotmapor maps mployingpecialymbolsodesignateplaces fspecifiedizes.Each ofthese, while ppropriateorarticularurposes,encountersifficultieshen ryingo depictwith qual fidelityhe distributionin regionsof dispersed ettlementndthe large nucleationsf population.'Thebasicdifficultyithny artographicethods,ofcourse,hatnlyelativelyimpreciseonclusionsan bedemonstratedithmap.Astepbeyondhemere istingrcartographicortrayalfnumbersygeographicub-divisionss the computationfthe ratio fpopulationo area,i.e., populationensity.n viewof the wideuse andfrequentalculation fdensityigures,tissurprisinghatthedemographiciteratureontains ittlefundamentalethodologicaliscussionf he oncept.A well-roundedreatmentofthesubjectwouldrequireseparate aper.Heret isperhaps ufficientoindicatehat here reseriousnresolved roblemshat rise n theuseofdensity,statisticsrmapstostudy opulationistribution.irst,heresultsbtainedwilldepend,o asignificantegree,n thesystemfarealunitsfor whichdensitiesrecalculated,nasmuchstheres nowaytoassign uniquemeaningto thenotion f densitynthevicinityfagivenpoint.Second,n constructingdasymetricrisoplethensitymapsthere sdifficultyndecidingn a suitablesetofdensityntervals. Eachoftheproposedolutionsothisproblem-whethertleanstoward"mathematicalora"functional criterion-isunsatisfactoryn onewayoranother. Third, anyattemptorefine ensityfigures ybasing them on"netrather han"grossareaencountersconsiderablendeterminacynthenotionof"net-ness
.
Mostpresentationsof"net densitiesre neitherlearnorconvincing.It would ppearhat here s needforooperationetween emographersndstatisticaleographersndevelopingechniquesortudyingensity.Whereasthegeographersaveregardedhestudyfdensitys, primarily,problemncartographicresentation,2emographershouldbein apositionoclarifythenalyticalurposesndimitationsfdensitymeasurements.
MEASURES OFCONCENTRATION
Ordinarily,hemajornterestn studiesfpopulationensityas to dowiththevariationfdensityverterritoryatherhanwithustheverallraveragedensityf theentireerritory.ormally,hisproblemsidenticalith hatf
1
John W. Alexander,AnIsarithmic-DotopulationMap
"
Economiceography,ix(October,
1943), pp. 43I-432.
2
Alexander, An Isarithmic-Dotopulation Map ", op. cit.: JohnW. Alexander ndGeorgeA.Zahorchak,"Population-DensityMaps of theUnitedStates:Techniques and Patterns,GeograpbicalReview,xxiii(July, 943),pp.457-466; JamesA.Barnesnd ArthurH.Robinson," A New MethodfortheRepresentationfDispersedRuralPopulation ,Geographicaleview,xx(January,
940),
pp.
1
34-1 37;
Preston . James,The Geographic tudy f Population",Chapterin Americaneography:InventoryndProspect,ditedby PrestonE. James nd Clarence F.Jones Syracuse: SyracuseUniversityPress, 1954); EugeneMather,"A Linear-DistanceMapofFarmPopulationn the United States,Annals oftheAssociationf AmericanGeographers,xxiv(September,
944),
pp.
173-I80;
John K.Wright,AMethod ofMapping DensitiesofPopulation,withCapeCod as anExample", GeographicalReview,xvi(January,
936),
pp.
103-I0i.
Seealso,PhilipM.Hauser,OtisDudleyDuncan, andBeverlyDavis Duncan,Methods fUrbanAnalysis:ASummary eport,ResearchReportAFPTRC-TN-56-i (San Antonio:Air Force Personnel&TrainingResearchCentre,
956),
pp. 67-69.
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