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Basic Signal Processing

# Basic Signal Processing

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Lecture notes fro Graduate students to understand basics of signal processing
Lecture notes fro Graduate students to understand basics of signal processing

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12/17/2013

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Digital Signal Processing
(L.
Notes
:
710
-
01)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Analog, Discrete, and digital signals:
An analog signal is represented as a continuous function of time, and at any pointin time it has a continuous values. A discrete-time signal is represented only atdiscrete time instants, but at those time instances can have a continuous values.A digital signal is a discrete-time signal
which is quantized to speciﬁc (discrete)
levels Analog signals are typically processed only by physical systems (hardware),while digital signals can be processed by hardware or software systems.Real and complex signals: Complex representation of signals and systems is auseful mathematical abstraction which can help to simplify the analysis of signalsand systems. This kind of representation is particularly useful for
nding oranalyzing information pertaining to delays (timing) and phase relationships. Forexample, suppose that there is an AC circuit with a voltage source, v(t) = sin(xt)Volts, connected to a series combination of a resistor( R ohms) and a capacitance( c farads).This impedance is given by Z = R - j/RC .The advantage of using this kindof complex representation is that the phase relationships between the currentand the voltage in the circuit can be easily obtained and It is easy to show that thecurrent leads the voltage by an angle of
tan
-1
| imag(z) / Real ( z) = [1/( RC)].3. Periodic and non-periodic signals:
A periodic

time signal repeats its value afterthe time instant which is known as Period. For example, the signal x(t) = cos(2f
o
t) and sin(2
∏f
o
t) is periodic with a period To = 1/fo (corresponding to the inverseof the lowest frequency present in the signal).The signal,
x(t) = e
–
t

, on the other hand, is non-periodic.4. Deterministic and random signals: A deterministic signal is a time function

with a known and perfectly predictable structure. For example,x(t) = sin(
xt
) is deterministic
its exact value is known at any point in time.
A random signal cannot be perfectly predicted. One can only estimate (or
‘‘guess’’) its value
based on its statistical properties. For example, the thermal noise, n(t), that occurs naturally inmany electrical devices is a random signal, as it cannot be predicted exactly. This kind of unpredictability often presents a practical design and analysis challenge for engineers.5. Single-channel and multi-channel signals: single channel signals are associated with a singlesource, whereas multi-channel signals are associated with multiple sources. For example, ablack- and-white TV picture is a single- channel signal, whereas a color TV picture is a three-channel signal.6. Pow
er and energy signals: Power is deﬁned as the time average of energy.

A power signal is a signal with ﬁnite power over the time interval (
-t, t),
Continuous Signal
Any physical quantity that is represented as a function of an independent variable is called a signal.Primarily Signal is a function and the Independent variable can be time, frequency, space, etc.
A Sinusoids ( e.g A Sin θ ) play
s a very important role in signal processing, because

They are easy to generate . And Periodic in nature.

They are easy to work with
–
their mathematical properties are well known.

Most importantly: All signals can be represented as a sum of sinusoids
A continuous Sinusoids signal representation
:-
The Signals could be a complex signal also as shown below
:-

Rectangular Function / Signal ( Pulse signal commonlyreferred as )f(t) = 1 ½ < t < ½0 other wiseConsider compressing the rectangular function in such a way that the area underthe rectangle stays constant, as 1. The function you would obtain as the width of the rectangle approaches zero, is called the unit impulse function
–
it is acommonly used test signal.Since the area under the rectangle was kept constant,the impulse function has the following properties :-t > 0t< 0Some Important Properties of Impulse function .