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From Muhajir to Mujahid

From Muhajir to Mujahid

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Published by Qissa Khwani
"From refugee to holy warrior : How a generation of Afghans were radicalised"

by Dr F Marwat
Peshawar University
Book republished for educational purposes
"From refugee to holy warrior : How a generation of Afghans were radicalised"

by Dr F Marwat
Peshawar University
Book republished for educational purposes

More info:

Published by: Qissa Khwani on Dec 16, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The study has been undertaken to examine the migration of Afghan refugees into Pakistan as a result of the Marxist-LeninistRevolution of April, 1978 in Afghanistan. The Marxist regime inAfghanistan and the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran jolted theentire region politically, and accelerated the process of politicalconfrontation into ideological polarization. Both Revolution and
opened the proverbial gates of hell, engulfing both men andmovements in the North-West Frontier province of Pakistan. Theserevolutions posed a serious threat to the entire Asian region byencouraging and enabling various state and non-state actors, under the patronage of the then superpowers, to use the refugees for their own malicious political gains and designs in South Asia.The fallout of the Afghan imbroglio was the influx of threemillion refugees into different parts of Pakistan. Approximately 2.2million were residing in 251 camps in the Frontier province andadjacent tribal areas of Pakistan.The study explores how Pakistan, in collaboration with theCIA, manipulated this political and humanitarian situation of theAfghan refugees, and converted it into an anti-Soviet resistancewith an Islamic ideological orientation by pushing innocentMuslim
(refugees) into the quagmire of militantreligio-fundamentalism. This was achieved through using andestablishing a chain of 
(religiousseminaries) and
(Schools) to raise
and lastly
to counter Russians and Afghan Marxists.It further explains the shift in the behavior of local
s (Chiefs), and their unholy alliance against democraticnationalist elite in the region. The cry for Islam and
masjid, madrasas, maktabs
and drug Mafia were used to produce a militant creed to challenge the state laws and authorityin the province. Religious outfits like
Tehreek-e- Nafaz-e -Shariat-e-Muhammadi
(TNSM) rejected the Pakistani legal system andestablished their own courts, opposed female education, electionsand democracy.Ziaul Haq’s lust for power and legitimization of his dictatorialregime exploited Islamic card both internally and externally.Internally he started Islamization drive (1979-82) by gaining thesupport of Islamist parties like
and externally the
’ cry was raised for liberation of Afghanistan and Kashmir.To provide new recruits to the ‘
fronts and for religiousindoctrination “Pakistan ideology” was reinterpreted by explainingthe new role of Pakistan army: “Army’s role is not only limited todefend Pakistan’s geographical boundaries, but also to the defenseideological frontiers of the country”.Islamabad’s political, economic and military involvement inthe new Afghan gambit was so well planned, organized andinstitutionalized that almost all Afghan refugees living in Pakistanwere trapped in this overt and covert snare. Although the official policy of Islamabad towards Afghanistan was based on the conceptof Islamic brotherhood, neighborhood and humanitarianism, itsrole in the conflict was determined by it’s covet policy.The Islamic nature of the Afghan resistance highlighted theclose relationship of religion and politics, and encouraged bothlocal and refugees in the province to establish round about onethousand Islamic
with the aid of Middle Eastern countries to provide ideological base for theAfghan
.The Afghan refugees
(political parties) encouraged,trained, and financed religious elements in Afghanistan and Pakistan.They created, backed and propagated sectarianism, extremism andtribalism in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The net result was the politicaland economic conditions in Pakistan are in total disarray.Radicalism, extremism and ‘Kalashnikov culture’ has proliferated

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