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Report On Motor Speed Control

Report On Motor Speed Control

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Motor Speed Control
Motor Speed Control

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Marvin 'Robotboy' Kanyoro on Dec 16, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/03/2014

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OBJECTIVES
1.
 
To do the start up and control of the direction of rotation of the ABB ACS150 - 0.75kW & 0.55kW230V 1ph to 3ph AC Inverter Drive Speed Controller2.
 
To research on the control of speed using frequency in an AC induction motor
THESIS
Variable frequency drives(VFDs) adjust a motor's speed to closely match output requirements, resultingin a typical energy savings of roughly 30 %. They are adjustable-speed drives used in electro-mechanicaldrive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying:
 
Motor input frequency
 
Voltage.Variable-frequency drives are also known as adjustable-frequency drives (AFD), variable-speed drives(VSD), AC drives, microdrives or inverter drives.The need for precision processing in manufacturing led to the creation and development of variablefrequency drives for industry. Sophisticated automation lines for making automobiles utilize hundreds of these types of motor drives in one facilityVariable-frequency drives are widely used in ventilation systems, variable-frequency motors on fanssave energy by allowing the volume of air moved to match the system demand. They are also used onpumps, elevator, conveyor and machine tool drives.It works by taking AC mains (single or three phase) and first rectifying it into DC, which is thensmoothened by capacitors and often a DC choke before it is connected to a network of PowerTransistors to turn it into three phases for the motor.
ANALYSIS
The input of certain characteristics into the control panel of a motor change certain parameters in themotion of the motor, which then influence the speed of the motor, the torque developed or even thestarting and breaking.
SPEED CONTROL
Variable frequency drives for electric motors are able to accurately control the speed and power appliedto the motor.. Variable frequency motor drives have the capability of being electrically tied together sothey can operate in concert with one another to move mecha Synchronous speed in RPM is given by:
N
s
= 120 (
 f 
)P
 
 
Where
 
 f 
- powerline frequency ( Hz)
P
- number of poles per phase.
P
must be an even integer since forevery north pole there is a corresponding south pole.
 
Speed Control by Varying Frequency
 
 
Through a series of capacitors, diodes and an imbedded computer chip, the frequencydrive is able to moderate speed while still delivering the full torque of power to themotor. The drive is able to not only vary the amount of frequency, but can also regulatethe voltage that is being sent to the motor. It does this by delivering a full current to themotor. The current has a direct correlation to the amount of power that is delivered to themotor. The variable frequency drive may have special software that allows the controllerto be tied to main computer. This computer can control a multitude of drives for a factoryenvironment.In most machines the induction motor is designed to work with the flux density just belowsaturation pointover most of its operating range to achieve optimum efficiency.The flux density
B
is given by:
 
 
Where
V
is the applied voltage,
 f 
is the supply frequency and
k
2
is a constant depending on theshape and configuration of the stator poles.
For speed control, the supply voltage must increase in step with the frequency, otherwise the fluxin the machine will deviate from the desired optimum operating point. Practical motor controllersbased on frequency control must therefore have a means of simultaneously controlling the motorsupply voltage. This is known as Volts/Hertz control.Increasing the frequency without increasing the voltage will cause a reduction of the flux in themagnetic circuit thus reducing the motor's output torque. The reduced motor torque will tend toincrease the slip with respect to the new supply frequency. This in turn causes a greater current toflow in the stator, increasing the IR volt drop across the windings as well as the I
2
R copper lossesin the windings. The result is a major drop in the motor efficiency. Increasing the frequency stillfurther will ultimately cause the motor to stall.Increasing the voltage without increasing the frequency will cause the material in the magneticcircuit to saturate. Excessive current will flow giving rise to high heat dissipation due to I
2
Rlosses in the windings and high eddy current losses in the magnetic circuit and ultimately failureof the motor due to overheating. Increasing the voltage will not force the motor to exceed thesynchronous speed because as it approaches the synchronous speed the torque drops to zero.By changing the frequency, the torque-speed characteristics are affected a illustrated where thespeed torque shifts along the speed axis. An increase in speed will therefore increase the
 
synchronous speed hence the rotor speed.
 
LINE VOLTAGE CONTROL
The internal torque developed by an induction motor is propotional to the square of voltageapplied toits primary terminals, which Is illustrated on torque speed characterstic curves.However,if the load has torque speed characteristics illustrated by the broken line,the speed willbe reduced from
n1 to n2.
This is brought about byredicing the ine voltage feed into aninduction motor.
ROTOR RESISTANCE CONTROL
Change in the rotor circuit resistance also influences the control of induction motor speeds.(illustated In the figure below).Increase in rotor resistance would lead to a decrease in the rotor speed.This however ha smore implications to the motor,since increasing the rotor resistace leads to anincrease in the starting torque, the operating speed range increases, and the powerdissipation(due to copper losses) also increases which eventually lead to a decrease in motorefficency.

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