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EIE030 Electric Power Systems Laboratory Exercise 2 The Synchronous Generator
1 Partly revised 2004 by N. Stråth
,
2 Updated 2007 by M. Akke
1 2007
Electric Power Systems - Laboratory Exercise 2The Synchronous Generator

by Olof Samuelsson
1, 2

1. Introduction
The synchronous generator is the absolutely dominating generator type in powersystems. It can generate active and reactive power independently and has an importantrole in voltage control. The synchronizing torques between generators act to keep largepower systems together and make all generator rotors rotate synchronously. Thisrotational speed is what determines the mains frequency, which is kept very close to thenominal value 50 or 60 Hz. The generator studied here is connected to the national grid,but since it is very small it has virtually no impact on the rest of the system whichtherefore can be modeled as a stiff three-phase AC voltage.
2. Theory
The
stator
of a synchronous generator holds a three-phase winding where the individualphase windings are distributed 120° apart in
space
. The
rotor
holds a
field winding
,which is magnetized by a DC current – the
field current
I
. When the rotor is rotated (bythe turbine) the rotating magnetic flux induces voltages E
q
in the stator windings. Thesevoltages are sinusoidal with a magnitude that depends on I
, differ by 120° in
time
andhave a frequency determined by the angular velocity of the rotation.In steady state, one phase can be modeled as an AC voltage source E
q
feeding thecurrent I against the terminal voltage V through the
d-axis synchronous reactance
, X
d
:E
q
(I
)=V+jX
d
IThe stator windings also have a resistance R
a
, which however is very small and isusually neglected. The voltage V is transformed a number of times and finally appearsat the mains outlet. The mains frequency thus originally comes from the mechanicalrotation of the rotor of the generator!Synchronous generators come with round (or cylindrical) rotor or with salient polerotor. The number of poles (magnetic N and S poles in the rotor) ranges from two toalmost one hundred. The above description is valid for a round rotor generator with twopoles, which is the simplest to describe.
2.1. Synchronizing a generator to an AC system
Connecting a generator electrically to an AC system is called
synchronizing
thegenerator to the AC system. Before this is done, the generator is accelerated to correctspeed and the rotor is magnetized. The current I resulting at the moment of synchronization depends in how close E
q
and V are to each other. To avoid largecurrents the phasor values of E
q
and V should be equal. This gives four conditions:• same magnitude of E
q
and V;• same phase of E
q
and V.

EIE030 Electric Power Systems Laboratory Exercise 2 The Synchronous Generator
1 Partly revised 2004 by N. Stråth
,
2 Updated 2007 by M. Akke
2 2007
and even more important (already assumed when working with phasors)• same frequency of E
q
and V;• same phase order of the three-phase systems E
q
and V.
2.2. The synchronous generator at steady state
As the expressions for active and reactive power are made more complicated by rotorsaliency, the round rotor case is treated first.
Round rotor machine
The phasor equation E
q
=V+jX
d
I can be illustrated graphically:
E
q
VI jX
dI
ϕϕδ
where cos
ϕ
is the power factor of the load. Here the load is inductive, I lags V and
ϕ
>0.The power supplied to the load is (per phase):
S
=
P
e
+
jQ
e
=
V
*
=
VI
cos
ϕ
+
jVI
sin
ϕ
Scaling the phasor diagram with V/X
d
gives:
E
q
V

X
d
V
I
ϕδ
V
2
X
d
P
e
Q
e
Active and reactive power can now be expressed as:
S
=
VI P
e
=
VI
cos
ϕ
=
E
q
X
sin
δ
Q
e
=
VI
sin
ϕ
=
E
q
X
cos
δ
2
X
(1)The control inputs at steady state are turbine power P
m
and field current I
. ChangingP
m
while keeping I
constant shows that E
q
is constant, while
δ
and Q
e
are changed.
E
q
δ1
P
e2
Q
e2
V
δ2
P
e1
Q
e1
is increased while P
m
is kept constant, it becomes evident that the sign of Q
e
can be controlled.

EIE030 Electric Power Systems Laboratory Exercise 2 The Synchronous Generator
1 Partly revised 2004 by N. Stråth
,
2 Updated 2007 by M. Akke
3 2007
E
q2
δ1
Q
e2
V
δ2
P
e
Q
e1
E
q1

Salient pole rotor
The difference between a salient pole rotor and a cylindrical rotor is shown below:
d-axisq-axisd-axisq-axis

The
direct-axis
(or
d-axis
) is defined as the main flux direction of the rotor. The voltageinduced in the stator E
q
leads the d-axis by 90°, which is the
(or
q-axis
)direction. The fundamental (phasor) voltage equation for a salient pole generator is:
E
q
=
+
jX
I
+
jX
q
I
q
which graphically appears as below:
q-axisd-axisVE
q
V
q
I
q
I
d
V
d
jX
q
I
q
jX
d
I
d
ϕδ
Using the d- and q components of current and terminal voltage,
S
=
P
e
+
jQ
e
=
V
*
=
+
jV
q
()
I
+
jI
q
()
*
+
jV
q
=
sin
δ
+
jV
cos
δ
I
=
E
q
q
X
I
q
=
X
q
the active and reactive power output of the generator can now be expressed as:
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