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COMBUSTION DE UN MOTOR DIESEL OPERANDO CON DIESEL-BIODIESEL

COMBUSTION DE UN MOTOR DIESEL OPERANDO CON DIESEL-BIODIESEL

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Published by thordeasgard

ANÁLISIS EXPERIMENTAL DE LA COMBUSTION DE UN MOTOR DIESEL OPERANDO CON DIESEL-BIODIESEL. Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively)

ANÁLISIS EXPERIMENTAL DE LA COMBUSTION DE UN MOTOR DIESEL OPERANDO CON DIESEL-BIODIESEL. Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively)

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Published by: thordeasgard on Dec 18, 2012
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09/17/2013

 
 
EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDIDIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OILBIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDSANÁLISIS EXPERIMENTAL DE LA COMBUSTION DE UNMOTOR DIESEL DE AUTOMOCIÓN OPERANDO CONMEZCLAS DIESEL-BIODIESEL DE PALMA
ABSTRACT:
 
Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels leadto differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailedcombustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel(POB), No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively). To isolate thefuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or itsfuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0) to 0.37 (B100), an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion.Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaustvalve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specificfuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed.However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. Thediffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.
KEYWORDS:
 
Heat release, palm oil biodiesel, diesel engines, exergy analysis.
RESUMEN:
Debido a las diferencias entre los combustibles diesel y biodiesel en cuanto a estructura química, sederivan diferencias entre las propiedades físicas de éstos, afectando con ello el proceso de combustión en el motor.En este trabajo se aplica un modelo de diagnóstico del proceso de combustión a un motor diesel de automociónturboalimentado operando con biodiesel puro, diesel convencional (acpm) y mezclas al 20 y 50% en volumen (B20 yB50 respectivamente), operando a la misma potencia para estudiar solo el efecto del combustible, las pruebas serealizaron sin ninguna modificación en el motor ni en el sistema de inyección de combustible.En el estudio experimental y de diagnóstico se observó que a medida que aumentaba la concentración de biodiesel enla mezcla se obtuvo una ligera reducción de la relación combustible/aire (0.39 para B0, y 0.37 para B100), en elavance de la inyección y en el inicio de la combustión. Además disminuyeron la eficiencia térmica efectiva, laduración de la combustión, la temperatura media máxima en el interior del cilindro, la temperatura de los gases a lasalida de la válvula de escape y la eficiencia de los gases de escape; mientras que la presión máxima, la tasa deexergía destruida y el consumo específico de combustible aumentaron.
PALABRAS CLAVE:
 
Calor liberado, biodiesel de palma, motores diesel, análisis energético.
 
 
104
NOMENCLATURE
 E 
Specific exergy [J/kg]
 E 
Exergy [J]
 LHV 
Lower heating value [J/kg]
 M 
Mass [kg]
 P 
Pressure [Pa]
Q
Heat transfer, heat released [J]
Specific entropy [J/kgK]
Temperature [K]
Specific internal energy [J/kg]
Specific volume [m
3
/kg]
Volume [m
3
]
Greek characters
 ∆
Inexact differential
 Η 
Efficiency
Subscripts
 Bb
Blow-by
Cyl 
Cylinder 
 D
Destruction
 Exh
Exhaust
 F 
Fuel
Q
Heat transfer 
 R
Released (heat)
Walls
Work 0 Dead state
Superscripts
 B
Burned (fuel)
Ch
Chemical (exergy)
1. INTRODUC
T
I
O
N
Biodiesel is attracting more attention every dayas an alternative fuel for diesel engines, not onlyfor its inherent characteristics: renewable, biodegradable, non toxic, oxygenated and free of sulphur and aromatics, but also for the maincurrent fossil fuel issues: reserves gradualdepletion, environmental concerns and highvolatility of oil prices.The global market for biodiesel has undergonean accelerated growth in last years. The overall biodiesel production in the European Union(EU) increased from 1.9 million tonnes in 2004to 3.2 in 2005 and to about 4.9 in 2006. In theUSA, world’s second largest biodiesel player, production in 2006 amounted to about 250million gallons (Approx. 836000 tonnes) [1]. Arapid growth in biodiesel production is alsoexpected in Asia and Latin America. In particular, the Colombian government hasestablished by law the utilization of blends of 5% biodiesel mixed with diesel fuel (B5) by2008, this target implying an annual nationaldemand closer to 68 million gallons.Biodiesel is similar to conventional petroleum based diesel fuel in its main characteristics andso it can be used neat or blended in existingdiesel applications without significantmodifications to the engine. However,differences in the chemical nature of both fuelslead to differences in their physical properties,affecting engine performance, combustion process and pollutant emissions. The extent of this effect mainly depending on biodiesel production raw material, and engine type andoperating parameters [2, 3].Hamasaki et al. [4] studied the combustioncharacteristics of a turbocharged direct injectionautomotive diesel engine fuelled by wastevegetable oil biodiesel and conventional dieselfuel, reporting slight differences in the shape of the heat release rate curve and in the maincombustion parameters. Similar results have been obtained by other researchers testing biodiesel from several vegetable oils and animalfats [5-9]. The development of similar stages inthe combustion process using biodiesel anddiesel fuel resulted in small differences onthermal efficiency, and so the lower energycontent of biodiesel led to an increase in specificfuel consumption [10-12]. Several researcherstesting biodiesel-diesel blends have reportedreductions in the peak temperature as well as inthe maximum pressure gradient reached insidethe combustion chamber, as the biodiesel contentincreased. As a consequence of this, a lower heatrelease rate for the high biodiesel content blendswas obtained, especially in the premixedcombustion stage [6, 11, 13-15]. There are fewreported works related with the combustion
 
 
105
diagnosis of diesel engines operating with palm oil biodiesel (POB). Kinoshita et al. [16]compared the combustion performance of anaturally aspirated direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine fuelled by neat POB(B100) and diesel fuel. Tests carried out withB100, at constant crankshaft rotational speedvarying the load from 0 to 100%, showedreductions in ignition delay and the maximumheat released without affecting indicated brakethermal efficiency. In a later work, Kinoshitaet al. [17], testing POB-diesel fuel blends at25, 50 and 75% biodiesel by volume, using thesame engine operating conditions, reported adecrease in smoke opacity and nitrogen oxidesemissions as biodiesel content increased. In thementioned work, samples of biodiesel preparedas blends of palmitic and oleic acid methylesters, the two main fatty acid methyl estersmaking POB, were also tested. The resultsshowed reductions in nitrogen oxidesemissions and ignition delay as the content of  palmitic acid methyl esters increased. In bothreported works, the authors calculated thethermodynamic properties of combustion products by means of a chemical equilibriumcode, reducing in this way the uncertaintiesassociated with the use of correlationsdeveloped for diesel fuels.Abdul et al. [18] studied the performance of  palm oil-based fuels in a single cylinder directinjection diesel engine. With crude palm oil-diesel fuel blends at 2, 5 and 10% palm oil byvolume, significant differences in the in-cylinder pressure curves were not found inspite of reductions detected in the heat releaserate and ignition delay.Rakopoulos and Giakoumis [19, 20] carriedout an up-to-date revision of works related tosecond-law analyses applied to reciprocatinginternal combustion engines operation. Theyreported that exergy analyses of thecombustion process has been applied toengines operating with alternative fuels such asethanol, methanol, butanol, natural gas,hydrogen enriched gases, and water-dieselemulsions; but not with biodiesel.In this work a detailed combustion diagnosismodel, including second law analysis, wasapplied to a turbocharged automotive dieselengine operating with neat POB, commercialgrade No.2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20and 50% biodiesel by volume (B20 and B50respectively). The diagnosis model developed,making difference from other approachesfollowed in the reviewed works, takes intoaccount the effect of the combustion productscomposition for each tested fuel. The studycarried out allowed determining the effect of POB content on the main parameterscharacterizing the heat release process and alsoon the specific fuel consumption and theenergy and exergy balances for the closed-valve period.
2. METHODOLOGY2.1 Model description
Combustion diagnosis was carried out using atwo species (air and combustion products),single-zone model, based on the approach proposed by Lapuerta et al. [21]. For calculating thermodynamic properties, thefollowing air composition (vol. %) wasassumed: 76.45 N
2
, 20.56 O
2
, 2.0414 H
2
O,0.92 Ar and 0.030308 CO
2
. The compositionof the combustion products was estimatedassuming chemical equilibrium, using CEA(Chemical Equilibrium with Applications)code from the NASA [22, 23]. The followingtwelve species were selected: N
2
, O
2
, N, NO,OH, O, H
2
O, H
2
, H, CO
2
, CO and Ar. They arerelevant in lean or slightly rich combustion processes of non-sulphured hydrocarbons athigh temperature [24]. Heat transfer wascalculated using the correlation proposed byWoschni [25] adjusting the constants to theengine by means of energy balances [26]. Theratio of specific heats
 
was calculated as afunction of composition and combustion products temperature. This approach has beenreported to be more precise than thoseassuming a constant value or calculating it asan exclusive function of temperature [27].In order to determine exergy, dead state wasdefined by a pressure of 101.325 kPa, atemperature of 298.15 K, and an ambient

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