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Light Emitting Diode

Light Emitting Diode



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Published by sasi1906

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: sasi1906 on Feb 05, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Discoveries and early devices
The first known report of a light-emitting solid-state diode was made in 1907 by theBritish experimenter H. J. Round of Marconi Labs when he noticedelectroluminescence   produced from a crystal of silicon carbidewhile using a cat's-whisker detector .
 RussianOleg Vladimirovich Losevindependently created the first LED in the mid 1920s; hisresearch, though distributed in Russian, German and British scientific journals, wasignored,
and no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades.RubinBraunsteinof theRadio Corporation of Americareported on infrared emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs)and other semiconductor alloys in 1955.
Braunstein observedinfrared emission generated by simple diode structures using GaSb, GaAs, InP,and Ge-Si alloys at room temperature and at 77 kelvin.In 1961, experimenters Bob Biard and Gary Pittman working atTexas Instruments,
found that gallium arsenide gave off infrared radiation when electric current was applied.Biard and Pittman were able to establish the priority of their work and received the patentfor the infrared light-emittingdiode.The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr., while working atGeneral Electric Company.He later moved to theUniversity of  Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Holonyak is seen as the "father of the light-emittingdiode".
 M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak's, invented the firstyellow LED and 10x brighter red and red-orange LEDs in 1972.
Up to 1968 visibleand infrared LEDs were extremely costly, on the order of US $200 per unit, and so hadlittle practical application. 
 The Monsanto Corporation was the first organization tomass-produce visible LEDs, using gallium arsenide phosphide in 1968 to produce redLEDs suitable for indicators.
 Hewlett Packard(HP) introduced light-emitting diodesin 1968, initially using GaAsP material supplied by Monsanto. The technology proved tohave major applications for alphanumeric displays and was integrated into HP’s earlyhandheld calculators.
Practical use
Some police vehiclelightbars incorporate LEDs. The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for  incandescent  indicators, and inseven-segment displays, first in expensive equipment such aslaboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios,telephones, calculators, and even watches (see list of signal applications
). These redLEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators, as the light output was not enough toilluminate an area. Later, other colors became widely available and also appeared inappliances and equipment. As the LED materials technology became more advanced, thelight output was increased, while maintaining the efficiency and the reliability to an
acceptable level. The invention and development of the high power white light LED ledto use for illumination (see list of illumination applications
).Most LEDs were made in the very common 5 mm T1¾ and 3 mm T1 packages, but withincreasing power output, it has become increasingly necessary to shed excess heat inorder to maintain reliability, so more complex packages have been adapted for efficientheat dissipation. Packages for state-of-the-arthigh power LEDs  bear little resemblance to early LEDs.
Continuing development
The first high-brightness blue LED was demonstrated byShuji Nakamura of  Nichia Corporationand was based onInGaNborrowing on critical developments inGaN  nucleation on sapphire substrates and the demonstration of p-type doping of GaN whichwere developed byIsamu Akasakiand H. Amano in Nagoya. In 1995,Alberto Barbieriat theCardiff UniversityLaboratory (GB) investigated the efficiency and reliability of high- brightness LEDs demonstrated a very impressive result by using a transparent contactmade of indium tin oxide(ITO) on (AlGaInP/GaAs) LED. The existence of blue LEDsand high efficiency LEDs quickly led to the development of the firstwhite LED, whichemployed a Y
:Ce, or "YAG", phosphor coating to mix yellow (down-converted)light with blue to produce light that appears white. Nakamura was awarded the 2006Millennium Technology Prizefor his invention.
The development of LED technology has caused their efficiency and light output toincreaseexponentially, with a doubling occurring about every 36 months since the 1960s,in a similar way toMoore's law. The advances are generally attributed to the paralleldevelopment of other semiconductor technologies and advances in optics and materialscience. This trend is normally calledHaitz's Law after Dr. Roland Haitz.
LED technology
Parts of a LEDThe inner workings of an LED

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