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CHAPTER 1- Pneumatic

CHAPTER 1- Pneumatic

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PNEUMATIC CONTROL
Manufacturing > Communication > Transportation and Power > Construction > Industrial Design
COMPONENT,SYMBOL AND FUNCTION INTRODUCTION 
PNEUMATIC CONTROL
 MAIN PAGE
AIR SUPPLY SIMPLE PNEUMATIC CONTROL CIRCUIT 
Learning OutcomeLearning Outcome
List pneumatic components and sketch theirList pneumatic components and sketch theirsymbols.symbols.State the functions of pneumatic components.State the functions of pneumatic components.Describe pneumatic components operation.Describe pneumatic components operation.Sketch and describe simple pneumatic controlSketch and describe simple pneumatic controlcircuit.circuit.Develop simple pneumatic control circuit and explainDevelop simple pneumatic control circuit and explainits operation principle.its operation principle.
Students should be able to:
INTRODUCTIONNTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION
In pneumatic system, the medium used to transferIn pneumatic system, the medium used to transferenergy isenergy isCOMPRESSED AIR.COMPRESSED AIR.
Generally, the pneumatic and hydraulic system areGenerally, the pneumatic and hydraulic system aresimilar.similar.
The pneumatic system normally applied to lightThe pneumatic system normally applied to lightand medium jobsand medium jobs
The pneumatic system is simpler, easier, cheaperThe pneumatic system is simpler, easier, cheaperand safer than hydraulic system.and safer than hydraulic system.
Examples of Pneumatic application
AIR SUPPLY
The air supply for pneumatic system needs to be compressedand filtered from contaminants such as water and humidity.Clean air needs to be fabricated to reduce friction, wear andequipment erosion and also smoothen the movement.Compressed air supplied by compressor.
 
COMPONENT, SYMBOL & FUNCTION
4 main sections that required to operatepneumatic system
a. Supply service sectionc. Actuator or transducersectionb. Pneumatic control sectiond. Energy transfer / transmittersection
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
Pneumatic system block diagramExample of pneumatic system
SUPPLY SERVICE SECTION
ComponentFunctionPhotographSymbol
Electrical Motor
To run the pump.The motor continues to rotateuntil the air storage full.
Compressor
•Pump in and increase the air,gas, vapourpressure higherthan the original pressure.
Cooler
•Cool the compressed air byfilling the air in a condenser.
Service unit
•Consist of filter, regulator andlubricator.
Tank(Air receiver)
Stored the compressed air and isinstalled next to compressor.
•The function of this section is to compress the air from the atmosphere.•The air is compress by a compressor and stored in a tank.
SUPPLY SERVICE SECTION
ComponentFunctionPhotographSymbol
Dryer
Dry out the air moisture
Air filter
•Filter the air entering thesystem from anycontamination.
Lubricator
To increase the air flowefficiency.Reduce friction and wear ofthe components.
Pressure gauge
•Show the air pressure readingof the system.
Pressureregulator
Control the pressure so therewill be no excess pressurethroughout the system.
PNEUMATIC CONTROL SECTION
ComponentFunctionPhotographSymbol
Pressure controlvalve
To control the pressure of compressed airat certain section below the component’spressure limit.
Flow controlvalve
Fix limit
Adjustable limit
•Fix limit controls the air flow to theactuator or the actuator speed.•Adjustable limit act as a regulator.
Directionalcontrol valve
Control the required direction flow. Can bedone by:•Hand / foot•Rope / chain•Lever / gear•Solenoid energy•Plunger and pneumatic energyThe type of valve is determined accordingto:•Number of flow direction•Number of position•The way it is operated
•The function of this unit is to explain pressure control, flow rate and direction ofcompressed air.
FLUID CONTROL SECTION
ComponentFunctionPhotographSymbol
 
•2/2 valve (2 ports, 2 position)•Has 1 direction output control.•2 types:–Normally open–Normally closed•3/2 valve (3 ports, 2 position)•Has 2 directions output control.•2 types:–3/2 open–3/2 closedFlow control valve•4/3 valve (4 ports, 3 position)•Has 4 directions output controlin three position.•2 types:–Normally open–Normally closed
 
ACTUATOR OR TRANDUCER SECTION
Component
(Linear actuators)
FunctionPhotographSymbol
Single actingcylinder
To move load in 2 linear directions.The cylinder has a rod, a hole anspring to move the piston back to itsoriginal position after use.
Double actingcylinder
To move load in 2 linear directions.The cylinder has a rod and two holeswithout spring.
Double actingcylinder withdouble ended rod
•To move load in 4 linear directions (1cylinder 4 direction).•The cylinder act as double actingcylinder but it can do a job in 2different direction.
(Semi-rotatingactuators)
Motor
The hydraulic motor is required ifthe desired work needs a circularmotion.Several types of motors that couldrotates at 90
o
and 180
o.
•Actuator and tranduceris a device that converts HYDRAULIC energy toMECHANICAL energy.
ENERGY TRANSFER SECTION
SYMBOLFunction
Compressor
Compressed air fromthe atmosphere.
Pneumatic motor
Convert thecompressed air intomechanical power.
SYMBOLFunction
Filter
Separate contaminantsfrom entering thepneumatic system.
Pressure reliefvalve
Prevent the hydraulicsystem from overloadingand limit the torque ofhydraulic motor cylinder.
•This section transfer the compressed air from supply section anddistributed into the circuit through hoses and tubes.
TRANSMITTER / ENERGY TRANSFER SECTION
SYMBOLFunction
Cooler
Cool the compressed air
Lubricator
Lubricate the air flow.Reduce friction and wearout of components.
Pressure gauge
Measure pressure flow atthe fluid line.Usually installed afterthe filter.
Carrier main pipe /connector source
Transfer the fluidthroughout the system.
SYMBOLFunction
Pilot control lineFlexible line
Transfer the fluid to thepilot to move the valve.
Flow controller(throttle valve)
•Limit the volume ofcompressed air thatflows to the specific flowpipe.
Flow controller(throttle valve -adjustable)
•Adjust the air that flowsto specific places.
TRANSMITTER / ENERGY TRANSFER SECTION
SYMBOLFunction
Double pressurevalve
Allow two directionalflows either from the leftor right direction.
Pressure reducingvalve
Reduce the pressure atcertain parts in thepneumatic circuit.
Shut off valve
Stop the hydraulicsystem for assembly andrepairs.
Pressure switch
•Control the pressure at aspecific location bydisconnecting theelectrical source at thepump meter.
SYMBOLFunction
Exhaust pipe
Flow out compressed airto control the pressure.
Joint source /manifold
•Pipe joint.
Shuttle valve
•Able to make selectionwithin two inputs.
Quick exhaust valve
•To release compressed airmore efficiently
TRANSMITTER / ENERGY TRANSFER SECTION
SYMBOLFunction
Check valve
Block the flow from theopposite direction.
Pressure valve
Consist of pressureregulator, lubricator,dryer, cooler and filter.
3 ports, 2 positionvalve (3/2 way valve)
•Control flow direction byusing three holes andtwo position valves.
Pressure controlvalve
Control the compressedair to ensure thatpressure does notexceed overpressure incircuit.
SYMBOLFunction
2 ports, 2 position valve(2/2 way valve)
Control flow directionby using two holes andtwo position valves.
Single acting cylinder
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpower.One direction springreturn.Linear motion.
Differential cylinder withdouble ended rod
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpower.Pneumatic control intwo direction A and B.Linear motion.
TRANSMITTER / ENERGY TRANSFER SECTION
SYMBOLFunction
Double acting cylinder
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpower.Pneumatic control in twodirection A and B.Linear motion.
Telescopic cylinder
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpower.Rod’s displacement istwice the normaldisplacement
Single acting piston
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpower.Load return the pistonback to its position
SYMBOLFunction
3 ports, 2 position valvenormally closed(3/2 way valve)
Control flow directionby using three holesand two positionvalves.
2 ports, 2 position valve(4/2 way valve)
Control flow directionby using four holesand two positionvalves.
Pneumatic onedirectional flow motor
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpowerRotates at 180
o
.
Pneumatic twodirectional flow motor
Convert pneumaticpower into mechanicalpowerRotates into 2different direction.

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