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Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS (Functions & Relations)

Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS (Functions & Relations)

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C H A P T E R
1
Functions and relations
Objectives
To understand and use the
notation of sets
, including the symbols
,
,
,
,
and
\
.To use the notation for 
sets of numbers
.To understand the concept of
relation
.To understand the terms
domain
and
range
.To understand the concept of
function
.To understand the term
one-to-one
.To understand the terms
implied domain
,
restriction of a function
,
hybridfunction
, and
odd and even functions
.To understand the
modulus function
.To understand and use
sums
and
products of functions
.To define
composite functions
.To understand and find
inverse functions
.To apply a knowledge of functions to
solving problems
.
In this chapter, notation that will be used throughout the book will be introduced. Thelanguage introduced in this chapter is necessary for expressing important mathematical ideas precisely. If you are working with a CAS calculator it is appropriate to work through the firstsections of the appropriate Computer Algebra System Appendix.
1.1
Set notation
Set notation
is used widely in mathematics and in this book it is employed where appropriate.This section summarises much of the set notation you will need.A
set
is a collection of objects. The objects that are in the set are known as the
elements
or members of the set. If 
x
is an element of a set
A
we write
x
A
.
This can also be read as ‘
 x
is amember of the set
A
’ or ‘
 x
belongs to
A
’ or ‘
 x
is in
A
’.The notation
x
/
A
means
x
is
not
an element of 
A
.For example: 2
/
set of odd numbers.A set
B
is called a
subset
of a set
A
if and only if 
x
B
implies
x
A
.
1
ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press
 
2
Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS 
To indicate that
B
is a subset of 
A
, we write
B
A
.
This expression can also be read as ‘
 B
iscontained in
A
’ or ‘
 A
contains
B
’.The set of elements common to two sets
A
and 
B
is called the
intersection
of 
A
and 
B
and isdenoted by
A
B
.
Thus
x
A
B
if and only if 
x
A
and 
x
B
.
If the sets
A
and 
B
have no elements in common, we say
A
and 
B
are
disjoint
, and write
 A
B
=
.
The set
is called the
empty
set or 
null
set.The
union
of sets
A
and 
B
, written
A
B
, is the set of elements that are either in
A
or in
B
.This does not exclude objects that are elements of both
A
and 
B
.
Example 1
 A
= {
1
,
2
,
3
,
7
}
;
B
= {
3
,
4
,
5
,
6
,
7
}
Find:
a
A
B
b
A
B
Solution
a
A
B
=
{
3, 7
}
b
A
B
= {
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
,
5
,
6
,
7
}
Note:
In this example, 3
 A
and 5
/
 A
and 
{
2, 3
}
 A
.Finally, the
set difference
of two sets
A
and 
B
is denoted 
A
\
 B
, where:
 A
\
 B
= {
 x
:
 x
A
,
 x
/
B
}
e.g., for 
A
and 
B
in Example 1,
A
\
 B
=
{
1, 2
}
and 
B
\
 A
=
{
4, 5, 6
}
There will be a further discussion of set notation in Chapter 14, which will provide theadditional notation necessary for the study of probability.
Sets of numbers
The elements of the set
{
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
,...
}
are called the
natural numbers
. The set of naturalnumbers will be denoted by
.The elements of 
{
...,
2
,
1
,
0
,
1
,
2
,...
}
are called 
integers
. The set of integers will bedenoted by
.The numbers of the form
pq
with
p
and 
q
integers,
q
=
0, are called 
rational numbers
. Therational numbers may be characterised by the property that each rational number may bewritten as a terminating or recurring decimal. The set of rational numbers will be denoted by
Q
.The real numbers that are not rational numbers are called 
irrational
(e.g.,
and 
√ 
2).The set of real numbers will be denoted by
R
.It is clear that
Q
R
and this may be represented by the diagram:
 N Z Q R
ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press
 
Chapter 1 — Functions and relations
3
Note:
{
 x
:0
<
x
<
1
}
is the set of all real numbers between 0 and 1.
{
 x
:
 x
>
0
,
 x
rational
}
is the set of all positive rational numbers.
{
2
n
:
n
=
0
,
1
,
2
,...
}
is the set of all even numbers.Among the most important subsets of 
R
are the
intervals
. The following is an exhaustive listof the various types of intervals and the standard notation for them. We suppose that
a
and 
b
are real numbers and that
a
<
b
:(
a
,
b
)
={
 x
:
a
<
x
<
b
}
[
a
,
b
]
={
 x
:
a
x
b
}
(
a
,
b
]
={
 x
:
a
<
x
b
}
[
a
,
b
)
={
 x
:
a
x
<
b
}
(
a
,
)
={
 x
:
 x
>
a
}
[
a
,
)
={
 x
:
 x
a
}
(
−∞
,
b
)
={
 x
:
 x
<
b
}
(
−∞
,
b
]
={
 x
:
 x
b
}
Inter vals may be represented by diagrams, as shown in Example 2.
Example 2
Illustrate each of the following intervals of the real numbers on a number line:
a
[
2
,
3]
b
(
3
,
4]
c
(
−∞
,
5]
d
(
2
,
4)
e
(
3
,
)
Solution
 –5–43 2 1 10 2 3 4 5 6
abcde
 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6 –5 4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6
The ‘closed’ circle indicates that the number is included.The ‘open’ circle indicates that the number is not included.The following are also subsets of the real numbers for which there are special notations:
 R
+
= {
 x
:
 x
>
0
}
 R
= {
 x
:
 x
<
0
}
 R
\{
0
}
is the set of real numbers excluding 0.
+
= {
 x
:
 x
,
 x
>
0
}
The cartesian plane is denoted by
R
2
where
R
2
= {
(
 x
,
y
):
 x
R
and 
y
R
}
ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press

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