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C H A P T E R

1

Functions and relations

Objectives

To understand and use the

notation of sets

, including the symbols

∈

,

⊆

,

∩

,

∪

,

∅

and

\

.To use the notation for

sets of numbers

.To understand the concept of

relation

.To understand the terms

domain

and

range

.To understand the concept of

function

.To understand the term

one-to-one

.To understand the terms

implied domain

,

restriction of a function

,

hybridfunction

, and

odd and even functions

.To understand the

modulus function

.To understand and use

sums

and

products of functions

.To define

composite functions

.To understand and find

inverse functions

.To apply a knowledge of functions to

solving problems

.

In this chapter, notation that will be used throughout the book will be introduced. Thelanguage introduced in this chapter is necessary for expressing important mathematical ideas precisely. If you are working with a CAS calculator it is appropriate to work through the ﬁrstsections of the appropriate Computer Algebra System Appendix.

1.1

Set notation

Set notation

is used widely in mathematics and in this book it is employed where appropriate.This section summarises much of the set notation you will need.A

set

is a collection of objects. The objects that are in the set are known as the

elements

or members of the set. If

x

is an element of a set

A

we write

x

∈

A

.

This can also be read as ‘

x

is amember of the set

A

’ or ‘

x

belongs to

A

’ or ‘

x

is in

A

’.The notation

x

/

∈

A

means

x

is

not

an element of

A

.For example: 2

/

∈

set of odd numbers.A set

B

is called a

subset

of a set

A

if and only if

x

∈

B

implies

x

∈

A

.

1

ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press

2

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

To indicate that

B

is a subset of

A

, we write

B

⊆

A

.

This expression can also be read as ‘

B

iscontained in

A

’ or ‘

A

contains

B

’.The set of elements common to two sets

A

and

B

is called the

intersection

of

A

and

B

and isdenoted by

A

∩

B

.

Thus

x

∈

A

∩

B

if and only if

x

∈

A

and

x

∈

B

.

If the sets

A

and

B

have no elements in common, we say

A

and

B

are

disjoint

, and write

A

∩

B

= ∅

.

The set

∅

is called the

empty

set or

null

set.The

union

of sets

A

and

B

, written

A

∪

B

, is the set of elements that are either in

A

or in

B

.This does not exclude objects that are elements of both

A

and

B

.

Example 1

A

= {

1

,

2

,

3

,

7

}

;

B

= {

3

,

4

,

5

,

6

,

7

}

Find:

a

A

∩

B

b

A

∪

B

Solution

a

A

∩

B

=

{

3, 7

}

b

A

∪

B

= {

1

,

2

,

3

,

4

,

5

,

6

,

7

}

Note:

In this example, 3

∈

A

and 5

/

∈

A

and

{

2, 3

}

⊆

A

.Finally, the

set difference

of two sets

A

and

B

is denoted

A

\

B

, where:

A

\

B

= {

x

:

x

∈

A

,

x

/

∈

B

}

e.g., for

A

and

B

in Example 1,

A

\

B

=

{

1, 2

}

and

B

\

A

=

{

4, 5, 6

}

There will be a further discussion of set notation in Chapter 14, which will provide theadditional notation necessary for the study of probability.

Sets of numbers

The elements of the set

{

1

,

2

,

3

,

4

,...

}

are called the

natural numbers

. The set of naturalnumbers will be denoted by

N

.The elements of

{

...,

−

2

,

−

1

,

0

,

1

,

2

,...

}

are called

integers

. The set of integers will bedenoted by

Z

.The numbers of the form

pq

with

p

and

q

integers,

q

=

0, are called

rational numbers

. Therational numbers may be characterised by the property that each rational number may bewritten as a terminating or recurring decimal. The set of rational numbers will be denoted by

Q

.The real numbers that are not rational numbers are called

irrational

(e.g.,

and

√

2).The set of real numbers will be denoted by

R

.It is clear that

N

⊆

Z

⊆

Q

⊆

R

and this may be represented by the diagram:

N Z Q R

ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press

Chapter 1 — Functions and relations

3

Note:

{

x

:0

<

x

<

1

}

is the set of all real numbers between 0 and 1.

{

x

:

x

>

0

,

x

rational

}

is the set of all positive rational numbers.

{

2

n

:

n

=

0

,

1

,

2

,...

}

is the set of all even numbers.Among the most important subsets of

R

are the

intervals

. The following is an exhaustive listof the various types of intervals and the standard notation for them. We suppose that

a

and

b

are real numbers and that

a

<

b

:(

a

,

b

)

={

x

:

a

<

x

<

b

}

[

a

,

b

]

={

x

:

a

≤

x

≤

b

}

(

a

,

b

]

={

x

:

a

<

x

≤

b

}

[

a

,

b

)

={

x

:

a

≤

x

<

b

}

(

a

,

∞

)

={

x

:

x

>

a

}

[

a

,

∞

)

={

x

:

x

≥

a

}

(

−∞

,

b

)

={

x

:

x

<

b

}

(

−∞

,

b

]

={

x

:

x

≤

b

}

Inter vals may be represented by diagrams, as shown in Example 2.

Example 2

Illustrate each of the following intervals of the real numbers on a number line:

a

[

−

2

,

3]

b

(

−

3

,

4]

c

(

−∞

,

5]

d

(

−

2

,

4)

e

(

−

3

,

∞

)

Solution

–5–4–3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6

abcde

–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 10 2 3 4 5 6

The ‘closed’ circle indicates that the number is included.The ‘open’ circle indicates that the number is not included.The following are also subsets of the real numbers for which there are special notations:

R

+

= {

x

:

x

>

0

}

R

−

= {

x

:

x

<

0

}

R

\{

0

}

is the set of real numbers excluding 0.

Z

+

= {

x

:

x

∈

Z

,

x

>

0

}

The cartesian plane is denoted by

R

2

where

R

2

= {

(

x

,

y

):

x

∈

R

and

y

∈

R

}

ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press