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C H A P T E R

2

Revising linear functionsand matrices

Objectives

To

revise

:

r

methods for

solving linear equations

r

methods for solving

simultaneous linear equations

r

calculating the

gradient

of a straight line

r

interpreting and using the

general equation

of a straight line:

y

=

mx

+

c

r

a method for determining the gradient of a line

perpendicular

to a given line

r

finding the

distance between

two points

r

finding the

midpoint

of a straight line

r

calculating the

angle between

two intersecting straight lines

r

matrix arithmeticTo apply a knowledge of linear functions to

solving problems

.

It is assumed that the material in this chapter has been covered by students in

Essential Mathematical Methods 1 & 2

. The chapter provides a framework for revision with worked examples and practice exercises.

2.1

Linear equations

Exercise

2A

1

Solve the following linear equations:

a

3

x

−

4

=

2

x

+

6

b

8

x

−

4

=

3

x

+

1

c

3(2

−

x

)

−

4(3

−

2

x

)

=

14

d

3

x

4

−

4

=

17

e

6

−

3

y

=

5

y

−

62

f

23

x

−

1

=

37

45

ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press

46

Essential Mathematical Methods 3 & 4 CAS

g

2

x

−

13

=

x

+

14

h

2(

x

−

1)3

−

x

+

42

=

56

i

4

y

−

3

y

+

42

+

13

=

5(4

−

y

)3

j

x

+

12

x

−

1

=

34

2

Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous linear equations:

a

x

−

4

=

y

4

y

−

2

x

=

8

b

9

x

+

4

y

=

132

x

+

y

=

2

c

7

x

=

18

+

3

y

2

x

+

5

y

=

11

d

5

x

+

3

y

=

137

x

+

2

y

=

16

e

19

x

+

17

y

=

02

x

−

y

=

53

f

x

5

+

y

2

=

5

x

−

y

=

4

3

An aircraft, used for ﬁre spotting, ﬂies from its base to locate a ﬁre at an unknowndistance,

x

km away. It travels straight to the ﬁre and back, averaging 240 km/h for theoutward trip and 320 km/h for the return trip. If the plane was away for 35 minutes, ﬁnd the distance,

x

km.

4

A group of hikers is to travel

x

km by bus at an average speed of 48 km/h to an unknowndestination. They then plan to walk back along the same route at an average speed of 4.8 km/h and to arrive back 24 hours after setting out in the bus. If they allow 2 h for lunch and rest, how far must the bus take them?

5

The length of a rectangle is 4 cm more than the width. If the length were to be decreased by 5 cm and the width decreased by 2 cm, the perimeter would be 18 cm. Calculate thedimensions of the rectangle.

6

In a basketball game a ﬁeld goal scores two points and a free throw scores one point. Johnscored 11 points in the game and David 19 points. David scored the same number of freethrows as John but twice as many ﬁeld goals. How many ﬁeld goals did each score?

7

The weekly wage, $

w

, of a salesman consists of a ﬁxed amount of $800 and then $20 for each unit he sells.

a

If he sells

n

units a week, ﬁnd a rule for his weekly wage,

w

, in terms of the number of units sold.

b

Find his wage if he sells 30 units.

c

How many units does he sell if his weekly wage is $1620?

8

Water ﬂows into a tank at a rate of 15 litres per minute. At the beginning the tank contained 250 litres.

a

Write an expression for the volume,

V

litres, of water in the tank at time

t

minutes.

b

How many litres of water are there in the tank after an hour?

c

The tank has a capacity of 5000 litres. How long does it take to ﬁll?

9

A tank contains 10000 litres of water. Water ﬂows out at a rate of 10 litres per minute.

a

Write an expression for the volume,

V

litres, of water in the tank at time

t

minutes.

b

How many litres of water are there in the tank after an hour?

c

How long does it take for the tank to empty?

ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press

Chapter 2 — Revising linear functions and matrices

47

10

The cost, $

C

, of hiring diving equipment is $100 plus $25 per hour.

a

Write a rule which gives the total charge, $

C

, of hiring the equipment for

t

hours(assume that parts of hours are paid for proportionately).

b

Find the cost of hiring the equipment for:

i

2 hours

ii

2 hours 30 minutes

c

For how many hours can the equipment be hired if the following amounts areavailable?

i

$375

ii

$400

2.2

Linear literal equations and simultaneouslinear literal equations

A literal equation in

x

is an equation whose solution will be expressed in terms of pronumeralsrather than numbers.2

x

+

5

=

7 is an equation whose solution is the number 1.In the literal equation

ax

+

b

=

c

, the solution is

x

=

c

−

ba

Literal equations are solved in the same way as solving numerical equations or transposingformulas. Essentially, the literal equation is transposed to make

x

the subject.

Example 1

Solve the following for

x

.

a

px

−

q

=

r

b

ax

+

b

=

cx

+

d

c

a x

=

b

2

x

+

c

Solution

a

px

−

q

=

r px

=

r

+

q x

=

r

+

q p

b

ax

+

b

=

cx

+

d ax

−

cx

=

d

−

b x

(

a

−

c

)

=

d

−

b x

=

d

−

ba

−

c

c

a x

=

b

2

x

+

c

Multiply both sides of the equation by 2

x

.2

a

=

b

+

2

xc

2

a

−

b

=

2

xc

2

a

−

b

2

c

=

x

Simultaneous literal equations

Simultaneous literal equations are solved by the methods of solution of simultaneousequations, i.e. substitution and elimination.

ISBN 978-1-107-67685-5Photocopying is restricted under law and this material must not be transferred to another party.© Michael Evans et al. 2011Cambridge University Press