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Assam Rice

Assam Rice

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Published by Shiva Kumar

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Published by: Shiva Kumar on Dec 20, 2012
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12/20/2012

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Page | 1
For more Information contact:
Visit
 
Rice Knowledge Management Portalhttp://www.rkmp.co.in 
Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP)
Directorate of Rice Research,Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email:naiprkmp@gmail.com,pdrice@drricar.org,shaiknmeera@gmail.com  Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217
RICE IN ASSAM
 
Status Paper on Rice in Assam
T. Ahmed
*
; S.K. Chetia, R. Chowdhury and S. Ali
*Chief ScientistRegional Agricultural Research StationTitabar-785625Assam, INDIA
 
 
Page | 2
For more Information contact:
Visit
 
Rice Knowledge Management Portalhttp://www.rkmp.co.in 
Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP)
Directorate of Rice Research,Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email:naiprkmp@gmail.com,pdrice@drricar.org,shaiknmeera@gmail.com  Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217
RICE IN ASSAM
 
I.
 
INTRODUCTION
Assam is one of the seven states of northeast India, which is located between 24
0
N and28
0
18
/
N latitudes and 89
0.
4
/
E and 96
0
0
/
E longitudes. The State is surrounded by ArunachalPradersh, Nagaland, Manipur and Myanmar in the East Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya in theSouth Bangladesh and West Bengal in the West and Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh in the North.The state is surrounded by many hills in all directions. The total geographic area of Assam is 78523sq. km with a population of 2.6 crores as per census 2001
.
The two main rivers viz., the Brahmaputra and the Barak flow through the state with 40 and7 major tributaries each, respectively. The Brahmaputra valley occupies about 5.6 million ha with 24administrative districts while the Barak valley is about 0.7 million ha with 3 districts. TheBrahmaputra flows from the east (Sadiya) to west (Dhubri). The altitude at Sadiya is 134 m while inDhubri it is 35 m. The Brahmaputra valley is an alluvial plain having varying topography. The BarakRiver flows from east to west through undulating plains. There are two hill districts viz. KarbiAnglong and North Cachar Hills in the state occupying about 1.5 million ha. The hills constitute apart of the Barail and the Meghalaya ranges with maximum altitude of about 1000 m above meansea level. Thus the state has three distinct physiographic units - the plains, the plateaus and the hills.The state has its climatic and physiographic features favourable for rice cultivation and thecrop is grown in a wide range of agro-ecological situations. It is grown from hill slopes of Karbi-Anglong to very deep-water areas of North Lakhimpur and Dhemaji during very wet humid monthsto drier period of the year. Wide variation of physiographic features and climatic characteristicshave resulted three distinct growing seasons of rice viz.,
ahu
(Feb /March - June /July),
sali 
(June/July - Nov /December) and
boro
(Nov /December -May /June). To match with diverse landsituations encountered with varying growing season, diverse varieties are traditionally grown in thestate since unknown past.
 Ahu
or autumn rice is grown during February/March to June/July and itcovers 4 lakh hectares (16 percent of gross rice area) to contribute 11 percent of rice production.This class of varieties are photoperiod insensitive and can be grown as early
ahu
as pre-flood crop inflood affected areas where as normal
ahu
is grown in the areas where risk of flood is minimal.
 
 
Page | 3
For more Information contact:
Visit
 
Rice Knowledge Management Portalhttp://www.rkmp.co.in 
Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP)
Directorate of Rice Research,Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030. Email:naiprkmp@gmail.com,pdrice@drricar.org,shaiknmeera@gmail.com  Ph: 91-40-24591218, 295 Fax: 91-40-24591217
RICE IN ASSAM
 
Table 1 : Agricultural classes of indigenous rice in AssamSeasonal class* Growing season Duration Remarks
A.
 Ahu
 (Autumn rice)
March/April 80-130 Photoperiod insensitive, earlymaturing usually broadcast, grownunder variable water depth (0-25cm).In Barak valley,
ahu
rice is furtherclassified as
Dumai, Murali 
and
Chengri.
 
Dumai 
80-90 Generally grown broadcast, Redkernelled
Murali 
90-100 -do-
Chengri 
90-100 -do-
 Ahu
 (transplanted)>100 Grown transplanted
B.
Sali 
(winterrice)
June/JulyNov.Dec150-180 Photoperiod sensitive, long duration,grown transplanted under variablewater depth (0-30cm) There are subclasses like
sali, lahi 
and
 joha
basedon the grain characteristics
Sali 
150-180 Coarse grained called
sail 
in Barakvalley

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