and causing the expansion of the Japanese middle class of merchants.
These Portuguese traders were called nambam (meaning \u201csouthern barbarian\u201d).
During the period ruled by Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582), the style of samurai castles became
However, in the same year, another missionary Lu\u00eds de Almeida, with medical training,
described in a more detailed way in a letter the Japanese tea as \u201ca certain boiled herb, which
is called ch\u00e1 and which is tasty to anybody getting used to drinking it\u201d. It also gave a detailed
description of its significance and value. The word ch\u00e1, meaning tea, entered in the
During this period the missionaries became more interested in tea drinking due to its
important role in the Japanese etiquette. After the visit in 1579-1582 of Alessandro
Valignano, the Italian religious superior of Jesuit missionaries in Japan, all Jesuit residences
had to have a tea room chanoyu to welcome guests for the purpose of greater assimilation of
He met him personaly and was in contact with important tea practitioneers of the time, that were christians, and contacted frequently Rikyu\u00b4s disciples. He also had his own tea room at Nagasaki.
In his other book \u201cArte breve da lingoa Iapoa\u201d, a revised Japanese grammer published in
Macao in 1620 for Japanese language students, a primary focus was given to technical
phrases related to tea and suki, considered culturaly more important than the other arts like
drama, poetry and classical writing.
By this time the word ch\u00e1 was already established in the Portuguese language as well as its knowledge. In 1626 the Jesuit Ant\u00f3nio de Andrade, in what was the first contact between European and Tibetans, reported about their tea with the full recognition of being tea.
Further in 1631, another Jesuit in Tibet, Francisco de Azevedo, described their tea as an herb provenient from China and the beverage appreciated in the same way as in China and Japan, although with the difference of being mixed with butter and milk. He also wrote about the concept of honor behind the drinking of tea and its healthy effects.
Depiste the fact of the Portuguese being the first Europeans to have the knowledge about tea
and privileged contacts with Chinese and Japanese since 16 century, the Dutch were
established in Japan since 1610 and were the ones responsible to trade tea into Europe and to
expand its consume among the European elite.
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