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Profile - Finland

Profile - Finland

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Published by: anthonyh80 on Dec 21, 2012
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Country List
World Factbook Home
The World Factbook
Page 1 of 11CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland10/4/2008https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/fi.html
Introduction Finland
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russiaafter 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World WarII, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions bythe Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequenthalf century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from afarm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; percapita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A memberof the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
Geography Finland
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden andRussia
Geographic coordinates:
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
338,145 sq km
304,473 sq km
33,672 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
2,654 km
border countries:
Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km,Russia 1,313 km
1,250 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea:
12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone:
24 nm
exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm; extends to continentalshelf boundary with Sweden
continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparativelymild because of moderating influence of the NorthAtlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000lakes
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakesand low hills
Elevation extremes:
lowest point:
Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point:
Haltiatunturi 1,328 m
Natural resources:
timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel,gold, silver, limestonePage 2 of 11CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland10/4/2008https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/fi.html
Land use:
arable land:
 permanent crops:
93.44% (2005)
Irrigated land:
640 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
110 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal(domestic/industrial/agricultural):
2.33 cu km/yr (14%/84%/3%)
 per capita:
444 cu m/yr (1999)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
air pollution from manufacturing and power plantscontributing to acid rain; water pollution fromindustrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat lossthreatens wildlife populations
Environment - internationalagreements:
 party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, AirPollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, AirPollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine LivingResources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, ClimateChange, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,Desertification, Endangered Species, EnvironmentalModification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, OzoneLayer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:
none of the selectedagreements
Geography - note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmostnational capital on European continent; populationconcentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
People Finland
5,244,749 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years:
16.6% (male 443,738/female 427,875)
15-64 years:
66.8% (male 1,773,232/female 1,731,808)
65 years and over:
16.6% (male 349,826/female 518,270) (2008 est.)
Median age:
41.8 years
40.3 years
43.4 years (2008 est.)
Populationgrowth rate:
0.112% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
10.39 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Page 3 of 11CIA - The World Factbook -- Finland10/4/2008https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/fi.html

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