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A Level Chemistry Guide (Nelson)

A Level Chemistry Guide (Nelson)

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Published by MiSty
A Level Chemistry Guide (Nelson)
A Level Chemistry Guide (Nelson)

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Published by: MiSty on Dec 21, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/03/2014

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Su
bo
jYU
y
he eltive moleculr mss is lsoclled the eltve formul mssespecilly for ionic substces.onistion enegies re lysendothermic nd elte to thefomtion of  postive ion.
Atomc strctre
Introduction
Much of chemitry deend uon Coulomb' Law which tate that theelectrotatic force of atraction,
F
i given by:
F
e
qq

where
q
and
q
are the charge on he obect (eg. the nucleu, anelectron, ion etc.) and i the quare of the ditance between their
centes
Thi mean that the bigger the charge the bigger the force, andthe further the centre are aart, the weaker the force.
Things to learn
Atmc numbe Z
of an element i the number of roton in thenucleu of it aom
Mass numbe
of an iotoe i the number of roon lu henumber of neutron in the nucleu.
Istpes
are atom of the ame element which have the ame numberof roton but differen number of neutron. They have the ameaomic number but different ma number.
Reate atmc mass

of an element i he
aeage
ma(taking into account he abundance of each iotoe) of the aom ofha element relative to /12h he ma of a carbon12 atom.
Relate stpic mass
i he ma of one atom of an iotoe relativeto /12ththe ma of a carbon12 aom.
Relate mlecua mass
M
of a ubtance i the um of all therelative atomic mae of it conituent atom
Ma mass
i he ma of one mole of the ubtance t unit aregram er mole (g mo), and i i numerically equal to the relaivemolecular ma.
1st nsatn ene
i the amount of energy required er moleto
eme
one electron from each gaeou atom to form a inglyoitive ion
2nd nsatn enegy
i the energy change er mole for theremoval of an electron from a ingly oitive gaeou ion to form adoubly oiive ion
By MissCutielicious
 
A common eo is o mss ou he
chge on he fomu of  speciesesponsible fo  lne n  mssspecum
RUCURE, BONDNG AND MAN GROU CHEMSRY
1st eectn anty
i the energy change er mole for the
addtn
of one electron to a gaeou atom to form a ingly negative ionE(g)  e-
(g)
2nd electn anty
i the energy change er mole for the additionof an electron to a ingly negative gaeou ion to form a doublynegative ionE(g)  e-
E(g)
s bck
element are thoe in which the highet occuied energ leveli an  orbital. They are in Grou 1 and 2Similar definition aly to
p bck
(Grou 3 to 7 and ) and
dbck
(Sc to n) element
Thigs to uderstad
Mass spectra
An element i firt vaouried and then bombarded by highenerg electron that remove an electron from the element and form a oitiveionThi ion i then accelerated through an electric otential deflectedaccording to it ma and finally detected.Metal and the noble gae form ingly oitively charged ion in theratio of the abundance of their iotoe.Nonmetal alo give molecular ion. or examle Br which ha twoiotoeBr (%) andBr (5%) will give three line at
m/e
value of158 1 and 12 in the ratio 121. Thee are caued byBrBr)BrBr)and (BrBr)The relative atomic ma of an element can be calculated from maectra data a follow
=
the um of (ma of each iotoe
ercentage of that iotoe)/1
W e x
oon ws nlse n  mss specomeelcue he elve omc mss of boron usng he esus below.Peks 
 /
 
ofbunnce %
.8..8. 
.
8
.
8.
I 8
Electron structure
The firt hell only ha an  orbital.The econd hell ha one  and three  orbital.The third and ubequent hell have one  three  and five d orbitalEach orbital can hold a maximum of
tw
electron.The order of filling orbital i hown in igure 11 below.
 
OMC SRUCURE
F 1. 1
he order of lln of atomorbtal
In n tom, the outer eectrons reshelded from the pull o the nucleusby he eectrons n shels nerer othe nucleus the nner electrons)
F 12
he frt onaton enere(kj mo of the element up to kton
Eecto stuctues ca be show  two wayshe s p d otatio. Fo vaadium atomic umbe 23) this is:1s2s2p3s3p3d 4s
he electos i a box otatio. Fo phosphous 
5) this wod be
ll
ss
Sizes o atoms and ions
s
he atoms become
smalle
goig acoss a peiod fom left to ightbecause the clea chage iceases pulig the eectos i closethough the umbe of shells is the samehe atoms get
bigge
goig dow a gop because thee ae moeshells of electos.A positive io is smae tha the eutal atom fom which it was madebecause the io has oe shel fewe tha the atom.A egatve io is bigge tha the eutal atom because the extaepsio betwee the electos causes them to spead out.
1st ionisation ener
hee is a geea icease goig fom left to ight acoss a peiod seeFige .2) his is caused maily by the iceased uclea chageatoic mbe) without a icease i the mbe of ie shiedigeectos.4
"
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