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A2 Edexcel Chemistry Target Sheets

A2 Edexcel Chemistry Target Sheets

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Published by MiSty
A2 Edexcel Chemistry Target Sheets for Unit 4 & Unit 5
A2 Edexcel Chemistry Target Sheets for Unit 4 & Unit 5

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Published by: MiSty on Dec 21, 2012
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03/01/2014

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pagesChapter 1.1 How fast? Rates of chemical changeAt thestart…I havestudied..I haverevised…
14-1520-2324-2730-31I can demonstrate an understanding of the terms ‘rate of reaction’, ‘rate equation’, ‘order of reaction’, ‘rateconstant’, ‘half-life’, ‘rate-determining step’, ‘activationenergy’, ‘heterogeneous and homogeneous catalyst’(
4.3a
)1 2 31 2 31 2 310-13I can select and describe a suitable experimentaltechnique to obtain rate data for a given reaction, egcolorimetry, mass change and volume of gas evolved
(4.3b)
1 2 31 2 31 2 320-23I can investigate reactions which produce data that canbe used to calculate the rate of the reaction, its half-lifefrom concentration or volume against time graphs, eg aclock reaction
(4.3c)
1 2 31 2 31 2 320-23I can present and interpret the results of kineticmeasurements in graphical form, includingconcentration-time and rate-concentration graphs
(4.3d)
1 2 31 2 31 2 332-33I can investigate the reaction of iodine with propanone inacid to obtain data for the order with respect to thereactants and the hydrogen ion and make predictionsabout molecules/ions involved in the rate-determiningstep and possible mechanism (details of the actualmechanism can be discussed at a later stage in thistopic)
(4.3e)
1 2 31 2 31 2 316-1920-2328-2930-31I can deduce from experimental data for reactions withzero, first and second order kinetics:i) half-life (the relationship between half-life and rateconstant will be given if required)ii) order of reactioniii) rate equationiv) rate-determining step related to reaction mechanismsv) activation energy (by graphical methods only; the Arrhenius equation will be given if needed)
(4.3f)
1 2 31 2 31 2 328-29I can investigate the activation energy of a reaction, egoxidation of iodide ions by iodate(V)
(4.3g)
1 2 31 2 31 2 330-31I can apply a knowledge of the rate equations for thehydrolysis of halogenoalkanes to deduce themechanisms for primary and tertiary halogenoalkanehydrolysis and to deduce the mechanism for thereaction between propanone and iodine
(4.3h)
1 2 31 2 31 2 330-31I can demonstrate that mechanisms proposed for thehydrolysis of halogenoalkanes are consistent with theexperimentally determined orders of reactions, and thata proposed mechanism for the reaction betweenpropanone and iodine is consistent with the data fromthe experiment in 4.3e
(4.3i)
1 2 31 2 31 2 330-31I can use kinetic data as evidence for SN
1
or SN
2
 mechanisms in the nucleophilic substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes
(4.3j)
1 2 31 2 31 2 3
pagesChapter 1.2 How far? EntrophyAt thestart…I havestudied..I haverevised…
 Page 1 of 11
 
Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Target sheets Units 4 & 5
 
40-41I can demonstrate an understanding that, sinceendothermic reactions can occur spontaneously at roomtemperature, enthalpy changes alone do not controlwhether reactions occur 
(4.4a)
1 2 31 2 31 2 334-37I can demonstrate an understanding of entropy in termsof the random dispersal of molecules and of energyquanta between molecules
(4.4b)
1 2 31 2 31 2 334-37I can demonstrate an understanding that the entropy oa substance increases with temperature, that entropyincreases as solid
liquid
gas and that perfectcrystals at zero kelvin have zero entropy
(4.4c)
1 2 31 2 31 2 334-37I can demonstrate an understanding that the standardentropy of a substance depends mainly on its physicalstate but also on its complexity
(4.4d)
1 2 31 2 31 2 338-39I can demonstrate an understanding that reactions occudue to chance collisions, and that one possible orderedarrangement, eg in a crystalline solid, can be rearrangedinto many possible disordered arrangements, eg in asolution so that the probability of disorder is greater thanorder 
(4.4e)
1 2 31 2 31 2 338-39I can interpret the natural direction of change as being inthe direction of increasing total entropy (positive entropychange), eg gases spread spontaneously through aroom
(4.4f)
1 2 31 2 31 2 340-41I can carry out experiments and relate the results todisorder and enthalpy changes including:i) dissolving a solid, eg adding ammonium nitratecrystals to water ii) gas evolution, eg reacting ethanoic acid withammonium carbonateiii) exothermic reaction producing a solid, eg burningmagnesium ribbon in air iv) endothermic reaction of two solids, eg mixing solidbarium hydroxide, Ba(OH)
2
.8H
2
O with solid ammoniumchloride
(4.4g)
1 2 31 2 31 2 342-43I can demonstrate an understanding that the entropychange in any reaction is made up of the entropychange in the system added to the entropy change inthe surroundings, summarised by the expression: Δ
S
total
= Δ
S
system
+ Δ
S
surroundings
(4.4h)
1 2 31 2 31 2 342-43I can calculate the entropy change in the system for areaction, Δ
S
system,
given entropy data
(4.4i)
1 2 31 2 31 2 342-43I can use the expression Δ
S
surroundings
= -Δ
/
to calculatethe entropy change in the surroundings and hence Δ
S
total
(4.4j)
1 2 31 2 31 2 344-47I can demonstrate an understanding that the feasibilityof a reaction depends on the balance between Δ
S
system
 and Δ
S
surroundings,
and that at higher temperatures themagnitude of Δ
S
surroundings
decreases and its contributionto Δ
S
total
is less. Reactions can occur as long as Δ
S
total
ispositive even if one of the other entropy changes isnegative
(4.4k)
1 2 31 2 31 2 344-47I can demonstrate an understanding of and distinguishbetween the concepts of thermodynamic stability andkinetic inertness
(4.4l)
1 2 31 2 31 2 344-47I can calculate Δ
S
system
and Δ
S
surroundings
for the reactionsin 4.4g to show that endothermic reactions can occur spontaneously at room temperature
(4.4m)
1 2 31 2 31 2 3
 Page 2 of 11
 
48-49I can define the term enthalpy of hydration of an ion anduse it and lattice energy to calculate the enthalpy of solution of an ionic compound
(4.4n)
1 2 31 2 31 2 348-49I can demonstrate an understanding of the factors thataffect the values of enthalpy of hydration and the latticeenergy of an ionic compound
(4.4o)
1 2 31 2 31 2 348-49I can use entropy and enthalpy of solution values topredict the solubility of ionic compounds
(4.4p)
1 2 31 2 31 2 3
pagesChapter 1.3 EquilibriaAt thestart…I havestudied..I haverevised…
50-54I can demonstrate an understanding of the term‘dynamic equilibrium’ as applied to states of matter,solutions and chemical reactions
(4.5a)
1 2 31 2 31 2 350-54I can recall that many important industrial reactions arereversible
(4.5b)
1 2 31 2 31 2 350-54I can use practical data to establish the idea that arelationship exists between the equilibriumconcentrations of reactants and products whichproduces the equilibrium constant for a particular reaction, eg data on the hydrogen-iodine equilibrium
(4.5c)
1 2 31 2 31 2 360-61I can calculate a value for the equilibrium constant for areaction based on data from experiment, eg the reactionof ethanol and ethanoic acid (this can be used as anexample of the use of ICT to present and analyse data),the equilibrium Fe
2+
(aq) + Ag
+
(aq)
Fe
3+
(aq) + Ag(s) or the distribution of ammonia or iodine between twoimmiscible solvents
(4.5d)
1 2 31 2 31 2 350-5455-57I can construct expressions for 
c
 
and
p
for homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, in terms of equilibrium concentrations or equilibrium partialpressures, perform simple calculations on
c
 
and
p
andwork out the units of the equilibrium constants
(4.5e)
1 2 31 2 31 2 362-63I can demonstrate an understanding that when
S
total 
 
increases the magnitude of the equilibrium constantincreases since
S = R 
ln
 
(4.5f)
1 2 31 2 31 2 358-59I can apply knowledge of the value of equilibriumconstants to predict the extent to which a reaction takesplace
(4.5g)
1 2 31 2 31 2 362-63I can relate the effect of a change in temperature on thevalue of 
S
total 
.
(4.5h)
1 2 31 2 31 2 3
pagesChapter 1.4 Application of rates and equilibriumAt thestart…I havestudied..I haverevised…
64-67I can demonstrate an understanding of how, if at all, andwhy a change in temperature, pressure or the presenceof a catalyst affects the equilibrium constant and theequilibrium composition and recall the effects of changes of temperature and pressure on rate, eg thethermal decomposition of ammonium chloride, or theeffect of temperature and pressure changes in thesystem 2NO
2
 
N
2
O
4
(4.6a)
1 2 31 2 31 2 368-69I can use information on enthalpy change and entropy to justify the conditions used to obtain economic yields in1 2 31 2 31 2 3
 Page 3 of 11

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