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Lab Report 4.docx

# Lab Report 4.docx

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Lab 6, Problem 5:The Generator

Thomas J. Wendel (ID: 4109163)

November 15, 2011

Physics 1302W Lab 231, Professor: Paul M. Haines, TA: Abdul N Malmi Kakkada

Abstract

How the potential difference induced in a coil of wire spinning in auniform magnetic field varied with respect to that coils orientation to the magneticfield. A rotating coil was placed in a uniform magnetic field centered between apair of Helmholtz coils (as seen in
Figure 1
). A small motor changed theorientation of that coil to the magnetic field. The potential difference wasmeasured and recorded with a voltage probe that was hooked up to a computer.

Prediction

We predicted that a potential difference can be produced in a coil that lies within aconstant magnetic field by simply changing the orientation of that coil with respect to themagnetic field. If we increase the angular speed of the coil, we are increasing the rate at whichthe coil changes its orientation to the magnet field, and thus the maximizes the value of thepotential difference produced.

Definition of Magnetic Flux:

φm=sB∙ndA=sBndA

ε=
-
dφmdt

Angular Speed (of Coil):

ω=θt=2πt , θ=ωt

We know that magnetic flux is proportional to the number of field lines through anelement of area. Thus, if the surface the magnetic field lines runs through is flat and has an area
A
, and if
B
is uniform everywhere on the surface, then the magnetic flux through the surface is:

φm=B∙nA=BAcosθ

Since we are dealing with a coil with N turns, the flux through the surface is going to beN multiplied by the flux through each turn. We also plug in
ωt
for
θ
, so:

φm=NBAcosθ=NBAcos(ωt)

We can now plug in our new equation for magnetic flux into Faraday's Law to get a valuefor the potential difference produced by a coil in a uniform magnetic field:

ε=
-
d(NBAcos(ωt))dt=
-

From this we can write:

ε=εmaxsin(ωt)

where:

εmax=ωNBA=2πNBAt

We now have an equation with variables that are either known or easily measured.However, we still need to calculate a value for the magnetic field,
B
. We take our equation forthe magnet field between two Helmholtz coils along a common-axis, with currents flowing in thesame direction, from our previous lab report to determine the value of
B
.

Magnetic Field between a pair of Helmholtz coils:(radius R, spaced one radius apart, along a common-axis, current I in the same direction, numberof turns N for each coil)

B= uoNR2I21z-R2 2+R232+1z+R2 2+R232

We set
z=0
:

B= uoNR2I22R3*5432

After re-distributing the constants and simplifying, we end up with our formula for
B
:

B= uoNIR5432

Procedure

We setup the pair of Helmholtz coils, which were spaced one radius R apart, with arotating coil powered by a small electric motor centered between them (as shown in
Figure 1
).

We connected a power supply to both the coils and used a compass to determine theirmagnetic fields. A maximum current of 2 amps was then applied to each coil, in the samedirection, to produce a uniform magnetic field.

We then hooked up a voltage probe to the computers interface and attached the clips tothe end of the small rotating coil. The small coil was rotated parallel to the magnetic field andobserved the potential difference using the Voltage-Time application on the computer. The smallcoil was then rotated perpendicular to the field and the potential difference was observed.

We then hooked up the motor, which was attached to the small coil, to a DC powersupply. The voltage applied to the motor was gradually increased and the potential difference

induced into the small coil was measured by the voltage probe and recorded to the Voltage-Timesoftware on the computer.

Figure 1:
A pair of Helmholtz coils with a rotating coil locatedat the center.

Data

Known Values:

N = 200 turns

I = 2 Amps
(±0.1)

R = 10cm = 0.1m
(±0.01)

A =
A=66.5cm2=0.00665m2(±0.0001)

uo=4π×10
-
7T∙m/A

B=0.0036(±0.00001)

Time(Sec)

(±0.01)

Measured(Volts

)

(±0.01)

Predicted(Volts)

(±0.01)
0.020 No Data 1.5080.033 1.551 0.9140.036 1.258 0.8380.042 0.722 0.7180.057 0.562 0.529

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