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00028487%2E2012%2E675908

00028487%2E2012%2E675908

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This article was downloaded by: [Washington State University Libraries ]On: 19 December 2012, At: 08:43Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/utaf20
Laboratory Testing of a Modified ElectroshockingSystem Designed for Deepwater Juvenile LampreySampling
Robert Mueller
a
, Evan Arntzen
a
, Marc Nabelek
a
, Ben Miller
a
, Katherine Klett
a
& RyanHarnish
aa
Battelle Pacific Northwest, Environmental Sustainability Division, Post Office Box 999,Richland, Washington, 99354, USAVersion of record first published: 25 May 2012.
To cite this article:
Robert Mueller , Evan Arntzen , Marc Nabelek , Ben Miller , Katherine Klett & Ryan Harnish (2012):Laboratory Testing of a Modified Electroshocking System Designed for Deepwater Juvenile Lamprey Sampling, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 141:3, 841-845
To link to this article:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2012.675908
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLEFull terms and conditions of use:http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsThis article may be used f or research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form toanyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae, and drug doses shouldbe independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims,proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly inconnection with or arising out of the use of this material.
 
Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
141:841–845, 2012
C
American Fisheries Society 2012ISSN: 0002-8487 print / 1548-8659 onlineDOI: 10.1080/00028487.2012.675908
NOTE
Laboratory Testing of a Modified Electroshocking SystemDesigned for Deepwater Juvenile Lamprey Sampling
Robert Mueller,* Evan Arntzen, Marc Nabelek, Ben Miller, Katherine Klett,and Ryan Harnish
 Battelle Pacific Northwest, Environmental Sustainability Division, Post Office Box 999, Richland,Washington 99354, USA
 Abstract
A submersible sled with the ability to electroshock and detectlarval lampreys via an optical camera was developed to sampledeepwater rearing habitats (
>
1 m). Three trials, each with 10 ju-venilewesternbrooklampreys
 Lampetrarichardsoni
(70–150mm),were conducted in a laboratory setting to determine the effectiveshocking area and detection efficiency of the device. Electroshockwas delivered for 30 s, and lamprey responses were observed. Thedetection efficiency ranged from 40% to 70% for the three trials(mean detection efficiency
=
60%). Mean postshock emergencetime was 4.4 s, and the maximum was 13 s. The device detected juvenile western brook lampreys without the need to transportthem to the surface, thereby increasing sampling volume per unittime and reducing the potential for injury caused by handling. Thesystem was developed to determine juvenile lamprey presence inregions where backpack electrofishers are unable to survey due towater depth.
Information regarding the status and distribution of lampreypopulations has often been difficult to obtain, partly due to thecomplex life history of many lamprey species and the lack of well-developed, standardized techniques for surveying, collect-ing, and handling lampreys (Moser et al. 2007; Clemens et al.2010). The lack of information can hinder conservation andmanagement efforts.Backpack or shore-based electrofishers have proven effec-tive for sampling ammocoetes in shallow-water habitat (
<
0.8 mdeep); however, methods for sampling ammocoetes in deepwa-ter habitats, where juvenile lampreys are also known to reside,haveonlyrecentlybeendeveloped(Moseretal.2007).Sealam-prey
Petromyzonmarinus
ammocoeteshavebeendocumentedindeepwaterhabitatsintheGreatLakesregion(HansenandHayne1962;WagnerandStauffer1962;BergstedtandGenovese1994;
*Corresponding author: robert.mueller@pnnl.govReceived July 18, 2011; accepted December 21, 2011Published online May 25, 2012
Fodale et al. 2003). Although ammocoetes of Pacific lampreys
 Lampetra tridentata
and western brook lampreys
L. richardsoni
have been detected in deepwater habitats (16 m) of the lowerWillamette River, Oregon, their distribution and abundance inthese habitats (large, fourth- and higher-order rivers) remainrelatively unknown (Jolley et al. 2010, 2011).Methods developed for sampling ammocoetes in deep watercan cause injury or mortality of sampled individuals. For exam-ple, electrofishing efforts in deep water are often coupled witha suction pump or trawl to transfer immobilized ammocoetesto the surface (McLain and Dahl 1968; Lee and Weise 1989;Bergstedt and Genovese 1994; Fodale et al. 2003). Alternativemethods include the suction dredge (Bergstedt and Genovese1994) and the shovel and Ekman–Birge grab (Kainua and Val-tonen 1980), whereby sediment samples are extracted from thesubstrate, brought to the surface, and sorted. Another methodused in water depths up to 4 m involves inserting a pipe into theriverbed and using compressed air to force a sediment slurry—potentially containing ammocoetes—up to the surface (Drakeand Elliott 1983).Loss of mucus from juvenile lampreys can result in fungalinfection (Mueller et al. 2006). Therefore, it is important thatefforts be made to reduce handling of juvenile lampreys duringsampling.In response to the need for cost-effective, minimally obtru-sive sampling techniques, we developed a new tool for deter-mining presence–absence of juvenile lampreys in deepwaterhabitats up to 8 m; the device is a weighted electroshocking sledthat is fitted with an underwater camera and does not require thehandlingofsampledindividuals.Theobjectiveofthisstudywasto test the effectiveness of the new tool in a laboratory setting.841
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   W  a  s   h   i  n  g   t  o  n   S   t  a   t  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   L   i   b  r  a  r   i  e  s   ]  a   t   0   8  :   4   3   1   9   D  e  c  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   2
 
842
MUELLER ET AL.
METHODS
Test fish.
—Thirty western brook lamprey ammocoetes rang-ing in total length from 70 to 150 mm (mean
=
115 mm) wereacquired by backpack electrofishing in the Little Klickitat River(near Goldendale, Washington) during late March 2011. Lam-preys were transported to the Pacific Northwest National Lab-oratory in Richland, Washington, where they were held in two37.8-L aquaria supplied with a mixture of groundwater andColumbia River water. Fish were acclimated from a tempera-ture of 7
C to a temperature of 10
C over a 3-d period and wereheldintheaquariumfor6dtoallowacclimationtothesubstratetype and water supply. Prior to testing, western brook lampreyswere placed in a rectangular test pen (66.0 cm wide
×
83.8 cmlong
×
83.8 cm high) constructed from 4-mm plastic-meshscreen fastened to a plywood base. The pen was supported by aframe constructed of 19-mm-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipes.The pen was placed in a round fiberglass tank (1.8 m
×
1.2m high) and was slightly elevated above the bottom of the tank to allow water to flow under the plywood base and down thedrain. Sediment (consisting of coarse sand and finer particles)was placed in the pen to a depth of 8.9 cm. By mass, 31% of the sediment consisted of particles with diameters greater than0.50mm,47%consistedofparticlesbetween0.25and0.50mm,and 22% consisted of particles smaller than 0.25 mm. Prior totesting, the tank was filled with water to a depth of 0.86 m.
Shocking system.
—A weighted electroshocking sled com-posed of two 13.6-kg lead weights with an aluminum frame andoptical underwater camera (Model SDC-MAL; Sartek Indus-tries, Medford, New York) was positioned such that the cam-era’s field of view covered the entire bottom area of the net pen.This arrangement allowed for all western brook lampreys thatwere dislodged from the substrate to be observed. A tarpaulinwas used to cover the entire test tank to create consistent ambi-ent lighting conditions for recording purposes. Four electrodes(two on each side of the sled) were deployed in a rectangu-lar pattern (25 cm apart on one side and 48 cm apart on theother side) and were secured to the outer portions of the leadweights (Figure 1). Electrodes extended to a length of 86 cm,withthelower5cmcontactingthesubstrate.AmodifiedABP-2backpack electrofishing unit (ETS Electrofishing, Verona, Wis-consin) powered by a 12-V, deep-cycle, high-ampere-hour bat-tery with 16/2-gauge conductors was used to deliver the electricshock (Figure 2). The total cable length from the portable con-trol unit to the sled was 8 m. This length could potentially beextended as long as voltage drop is considered relative to ca-ble length and conductor gauge. Recordings of western brook lampreys burrowing into the substrate and during each shock-ing event were made on an 8-mm digital video recorder (ModelGVD 7000, Sony, New York).After testing, the electrical field of the shocker was mea-sured using a portable voltmeter. The two wire leads from thevoltmeter were attached 7.5 cm apart to the end of a 1.5-m plas-tic pole, which was inserted into the substrate parallel to theelectrical current flow to obtain a voltage gradient. The voltage
FIGURE 1. Schematic representation of the shocking sled positioned withinthe 1.8-m-diameter test tank, where the responses of juvenile western brook lampreys to electroshock were observed.
gradient was tested within each square of a 9-cm
2
grid that wassuperimposed over the rectangular footprint of the net pen (120
×
120cm).Intotal,132measurementsweremade.Thespecificconductance was 202
µ 
S/cm during all tests.
FIGURE 2. Shocking sled suspended at the top portion of the test tank thatcontained juvenile western brook lampreys.
   D  o  w  n   l  o  a   d  e   d   b  y   [   W  a  s   h   i  n  g   t  o  n   S   t  a   t  e   U  n   i  v  e  r  s   i   t  y   L   i   b  r  a  r   i  e  s   ]  a   t   0   8  :   4   3   1   9   D  e  c  e  m   b  e  r   2   0   1   2

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