1.1 Why Automatic Control ?

1.2 Open Loop and Closed Loop Control Systems

1.3 Open Loop Vs Closed Loop Control Systems

1.4 Feedback Control Systems

1.5 Classification of Control Systems

1.5.1 Continuous Time Feedback Control Systems

1.5.2 Discrete Data Feedback Control Systems

1. Linear control systems

2. Non-linear control systems

1.5.3 Linear Control Systems

1.5.4 Non-Linear Control Systems

2.2 Mathematical Models of Physical Systems

2.2.1 Electrical Systems

2.2.2 Dual Networks

2.2.3 Mechanical Systems

2.2.4 Analogous Systems

2.2.5 Gears

2.2.6 Thermal Systems

2.2.7' Fluid Systems

2.3 Block Diagrams of Closed Loop Systems

2.3.1 Block Diagram Reduction Techniques

2.4 Signal Flow Graph Representation of Control Systems

2.4.1 Construction of a Signal Flow Graph for a System

2.4.2 Mason's Gain Formula

2.5 Effects of Feedback

2.5.1 Effect on system dynamics

2.5.2 Effect due to parameter variations

2.5.3 Effect on Bandwidth

2.5.4 Effect on Noise Signals

2.6 Modelling of Elements of Control Systems

2.6.1 DC Servo Motor

2.6.2 AC Servo Motors

2.6.3 Synchros

2.6.4 AC Tacho Generator

2.6.5 DC Tacho Generator

2.6.6 Potentiometers

2.6.7 Stepper Motors

3.5.1 Response to a Unit Step Input

3.5.2 Response to a Unit Ramp Input

Time Domain Specifications of a Second Order System

S. Steady state error (e

3.6 Steady State Errors

3.6.1 Error Constants

3.6.2 Dependence of Steadystate Error on Type of the System

3.6.3 Generalized Error Coefficients -Error Series

3.7 Design Specifications of a Control System

3.7.1 Proportional Derivative Error Control (PD control)

3.7.2 Proportional Integral Controller (PI Control)

3.7.4 Derivative Output Control

4 Stability of Systems

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Stability Preliminaries

4.3 Necessary Conditions for Stability

4.4 Routh -Hurwitz Stability Criterion

4.4 Special Cases

4.6 Relative Stability

Problems

5 Root Locus Analysis

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Basic Idea

5.3 Development of Root Locus Technique

5.4 Properties of Root Locus

6 Frequency Response of
Control Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Time Domain Analysis Vs Frequency Domain Analysis

Frequency Response of Control Systems 191

6.3 Frequency Response of a Control System

6.5 Graphical Representation of Transfer Functions

6.5.1 Bode plots

6.5.2 Polar Plots

6.5.3 Log Magnitude Vs Phase Plots

6.6 All Pass Systems

6.7 Minimum Phase Systems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Principle of Argument

7.3 Development of Nyquist Criterion

7.3.1 Nyquist Contour

7.3.2 Nyquist Stability Criterion

7.4 Relative Stability

7.4.1 Measures of Relative Stability: Gain Margin

7.4.2 Phase Margin

7.4.4 Gain Margin and Phase Margin Using Bode Plot

7.5 Closed Loop Frequency Response

7.5.1 Constant M Circles

7.5.3 Nichols Charts

8 Design in Frequency Domain

8.1 Preliminaries of Design

8.2 A Design Example

8.3 Realisation of Compensators and their Characteristics

8.3.1 Lead Compensator

8.3.2 Lag Compensator

8.3.3 Lag-Lead Compensator

8.4.1 Design of Lead Compensator

8.4.2 Design of Lag Compensator

8.4.3 Design of Lag-Lead Compensator

9 State Space Analysis of
Control Systems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 State Variables

9.3 State Equations for Linear Systems

9.4 Canonical Forms of State Models of Linear Systems

9.4.1 Phase Variable Form

9.4.2 Diagonal Form

9.5 Transfer Function from State Model

9.6 Diagonalisation

9.6.1 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

9.7 Solution of State Equation

9.7.1 Properties of State Transition Matrix

9.7.2 Methods of Computing State Transition Matrix

9.8 Qualitative Analysis of Control Systems

9.B.l State Controllability

9.8.2 Observability

9.8.3 Duality Principle

Answers to Problems