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Operating Below Crush Depth The Formation Evolution and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War II

Operating Below Crush Depth The Formation Evolution and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War II

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Published by Paul D Carrier
Prior to entering World War II, the Japanese Navy did a considerable planning and force development in preparation for a single ―decisive battle‖ with the American fleet. The Japanese submarine force entered the war with highly trained crews operating some of the most capable submarines in the world. Even so, they accomplished little. This study will analyze the genesis and evolution of the technological basis of the Japanese submarine fleet before and during the war. Along with the technological evolution, it will also review the strategic and tactical evolution of the force. It will further analyze the employment of submarines as they apply to two major forms of naval warfare: guerre de course and guerre de main. While the entire study will use comparison with the American and German, the majority of the focus will be on the unique aspects of the Japanese employment of their submarines. These analyses will answer whether the Japanese submarine force would have been capable of influencing the results of major battles and the overall campaign in the Pacific Ocean. Could the Japanese submarine force have influenced the result of the war allowing it to end with a more favorable outcome for the Japanese?
Prior to entering World War II, the Japanese Navy did a considerable planning and force development in preparation for a single ―decisive battle‖ with the American fleet. The Japanese submarine force entered the war with highly trained crews operating some of the most capable submarines in the world. Even so, they accomplished little. This study will analyze the genesis and evolution of the technological basis of the Japanese submarine fleet before and during the war. Along with the technological evolution, it will also review the strategic and tactical evolution of the force. It will further analyze the employment of submarines as they apply to two major forms of naval warfare: guerre de course and guerre de main. While the entire study will use comparison with the American and German, the majority of the focus will be on the unique aspects of the Japanese employment of their submarines. These analyses will answer whether the Japanese submarine force would have been capable of influencing the results of major battles and the overall campaign in the Pacific Ocean. Could the Japanese submarine force have influenced the result of the war allowing it to end with a more favorable outcome for the Japanese?

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Published by: Paul D Carrier on Dec 23, 2012
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 OPERATING BELOW CRUSH DEPTH: THE FORMATION, EVOLUTION,AND COLLAPSE OF THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE NAVYSUBMARINE FORCE IN WORLD WAR IIA thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. ArmyCommand and General Staff College in partialfulfillment of the requirements for thedegreeMASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCEMilitary History byDAVID W GROGAN, LCDR, UNITED STATES NAVYB.S., University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1999Fort Leavenworth, Kansas2011-01Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
 
ii
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 
 
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing datasources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or anyother aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware thatnotwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently validOMB control number.
PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS.
 
1. REPORT DATE
(DD-MM-YYYY)
 
10-06-2011
2. REPORT TYPE
Master’s Thesis
3. DATES COVERED
(From - To)
 
AUG 2010–JUN 2011
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
Operating Below Crush Depth: The Formation, Evolution, andCollapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force inWorld War II.
5a. CONTRACT NUMBER5b. GRANT NUMBER5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER6. AUTHOR(S)
David W. Grogan, Lieutenant Commander, USN
5d. PROJECT NUMBER5e. TASK NUMBER5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
U.S. Army Command and General Staff CollegeATTN: ATZL-SWD-GDFort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2301
8. PERFORMING ORG REPORTNUMBER9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’SACRONYM(S)11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORTNUMBER(S)12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES14. ABSTRACT
Prior to entering World War II, the Japanese Navy did a considerable planning and force development in preparation for a single ―decisive b
attle‖
with the American fleet. The Japanese submarine force entered the war with highly trained crews operating some of the most capable submarines in the world. Even so, theyaccomplished little. This study will analyze the genesis and evolution of the technological basis of the Japanesesubmarine fleet before and during the war. Along with the technological evolution, it will also review the strategicand tactical evolution of the force. It will further analyze the employment of submarines as they apply to twomajor forms of naval warfare: guerre de course and guerre de main. While the entire study will use comparisonwith the American and German, the majority of the focus will be on the unique aspects of the Japaneseemployment of their submarines. These analyses will answer whether the Japanese submarine force would have been capable of influencing the results of major battles and the overall campaign in the Pacific Ocean. Could theJapanese submarine force have influenced the result of the war allowing it to end with a more favorable outcomefor the Japanese?
15. SUBJECT TERMS
 
Japan, Submarines, World War II, Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Midway, Marianas, Okinawa, AmericanWest Coast, Suicide Torpedoes (kaiten)
16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATIONOF ABSTRACT18. NUMBEROF PAGES19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSONa. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. PHONE NUMBER
(include area code 
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(U) (U) (U) (U) 140
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18
 
 
iiiMASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCETHESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: Lieutenant Commander David W. GroganThesis Title: Operating Below Crush Depth: The Formation, Evolution and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War IIApproved by:, Thesis Committee Chair John T. Kuehn, Ph.D., Member Thomas G. Bradbeer, Ph.D., Member Harold A. Laurence, M.P.S., M.B.A.Accepted this 10th day of June 2011 by:, Director, Graduate Degree ProgramsRobert F. Baumann, Ph.D.The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author and do notnecessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to this study should include the foregoingstatement.)

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