Three distinct myths of the creation of the dog can be reconstructed from Islamic texts. According to atradition related on the authority of Ali b. Abi Taleb, when Adam and Eve were cast out of paradise,Satan came to the beasts of the earth and encouraged them with violent cries to attack and devour the couple; his spittle flew out of his mouth, and God fashioned a male and a female dog from it. Themale was sent to guard Adam and the female to protect Eve. The enmity between the dog and wildanimals was thus initiated.
In a second version, God created the dog from the clay left over from His creation of Adam, which maylie behind the assertion in some sources that dog bones and tissue may be grafted to the humanbody.
The third myth may be deduced from a tradition about the taboo on eating the dog's flesh because theanimal is "metamorphosed"; the implication is that human sinners are transformed into dogs and thateating the flesh would be a form of cannibalism.
A tradition about the domestication of the dog was related on the authority of Ebn Abbas: When Adamwas cast out of heaven and attacked by Satan, God reassured him and sent Moses' staff as a meansof defense; Adam struck a dog with it, but God commanded him to pat the animal on the head. Theanimal thus being domesticated, befriending Adam and his seed.
In epic and legend
Accounts of feral children raised by various animals are widely attested, but it can be verified thathuman children have been nursed by dogs. Several heroes, gods, and legendary figures of antiquitywere supposed to have been nursed by dogs.
Herodotus reported a legend according to which Cyrus the Great had been suckled by a bitch.Similarly the author of
attributed the violent nature of "the father of Soqlab" to his having beennursed by a dog. In the
violent men are repeatedly likened to those who have beennursed by dogs.
In some oral versions of the
, Afrasiab is said to have owed his violent temper to hishaving been suckled by a bitch; the wicked king Zahhak is said to have been nursed by a she-wolf. Another ruthless epic character, Bokhtonnasr (Nebuchadnezzar), was supposedly so hideous that hisparents had no choice but to expose him, but he survived, thanks to a bitch who came to nurse himthree times a day.
According to a contemporary Boir Ahmadi story, the messianic ruler Kaykhosrow is hidden with hishorse and hunting dog in a cave in the province of Fars. Aside from the expected association of kingswith hunting dogs in epic literature, dogs fulfill other roles in Persian tales.
According to a famous tale in the
and other sources, Bahram was awakened to theoppression of his tyrannical vezier as a result of witnessing a shepherd's treatment of his treacheroussheep dog, which, having grown enamored of a shewolf, was allowing the latter to ravage his master'sflocks.
In mystical literature