Row must be unique
It eliminated the explicit parent/child structures from the database, and instead of represented all data in the database as simple row/column tables of data values.
A relational database is a database where all data visible to the user is organizedstrictly as tables of data values, and where all database operations work on thesetables. The publication of the paper “A relational Model of Data for Large Shared Database” by Dr.E.F. Codd in June 1970 in the “Communication of ACM” , set a trend for virgorous andextensive investigation into a theoretical frame work to support further work in the area of Data Modelling. The end result is the Relational Database Management System.
The 12 Rules for an RDBMS (Codd' s Rule)
: The information RuleAll Information is explicitly and logically represented in exactly one way i.e by data values intables.
The rule of guaranteed accessEvery item of data must be logically addressable by resorting to a combination of a Tablename, Primary key and column name.
: The systematic treatment of null value This rule states that support for null values must be consistent throughout the DBMS, andindependent of the data type of the field.
: The Database Description RuleA description of the database is held and maintained using the same logical structures used todefine the data. This allows users to query such information in the same way and using thesame language, as they would do for any other data in the database.
: Comprehensive sub-language Rule There must be at least one language whose statements can be expressed as character stringsconfirming to some well-defined syntax, which is comprehensive in supporting the following:- Data definition, view Definition, Data Manipulation- Integrity Constraints- Authorization- Transaction BoundariesAll the above topics are manageable through Structural Query Language (SQL) statement.
: The view-updating RuleAll views that are theoretically updateable are also updated by the system.A view is a table is non-existent in its own right, but instead derived from one or more basetables.
: The High Level Insert, Update and Delete Rule The capability to handling a base relation, or infact a derived relation, as a single operandmust hold good for all retrieve, update, delete and insert activity. This means that the major DML commands, namely SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE and INSERTmust be available and operational on sets of rows in a relation.
: The physical independence Rule The user access to the database remains logically consistent even if the storagerepresentation is changed.