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Oracle 9i Notes

Oracle 9i Notes

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Published by: saravanand1983 on Dec 26, 2012
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9i
 SL ContentsPage No
1
Introduction To DBMS
2
Oracle Data Type
3
Structure Query Language (SQL)
4
Sql* Plus Editing Commands
5
Sql * Plus File Commands
6
Data Retrieval/Query Language(Drl/Dql) (Select)
7
Data Manipulation Language (DML)(Insert, Update, Delete, Merge)
8
Data Dictionary Language (DDL)(Create, Alter, Drop, Truncate, Rename)
9
Data Control Language (DCL)(Grant, Revoke)
10
 Transaction Control Language (TCL)(Commit, Rollback, Savepint)
11
Oracle Functions
12
Group By Clause
13
Integrity Constraints
14
 Joins
15
Sub Queries
16
Working With Database Objects
 
Views
 
Sequences
Inedexes
Synonyms
Cluster
17
Partitions
18
Locking Mechanism
19
More Commands In Oracle 9i
20
Pl/Sql
21
Cursor
22
Exception Handling
23
Procedures
24
Functions
25
PACKAGE And PACKAGE BODY
26
 Trigger
27
File Input/Output (I/O) (Utl_File)
28
Oracle Supplied Packages
29
New SQL Function In Oracle 9i
30
Implementing Object Techniques
31
Using Lobs
32
Some Advance Fetures In Oracle 9i
33
Oracle Utilities
Export
 
Import
 
Sql Loader
34
Oracle Architecture
 
Introduction to DBMSDatabase
: A Database is a collection of inter-related data from which some information canbe extract.
Database Management System (DBMS)
Database Management Systems organize and structure data so that it can be retrieved andmanipulating by users and application programmer.Database Model: The data structures and access techniques provided by a particular DBMSare called as Data Model.
Hierarchical
Network
Relational
Hierarchical data model:
- This model is like a hierarchical tree structure; used to construct a hierarchy of records in theform of nodes and branches. The data elements presnt in the structure of parent/ childrelationship.- Every child has one parent.- You can see only one record at a time.- Retrieving the data in a Hierarchical database thus required navigating through the records,Moving up, down, sideways one record at a time.- Example Windows Explorer- Developed By IBM Named as Information Management System (IMS) in 1968
The Drawback of Hierarchical data model
- It cannot handle a large data- It’s not support many to many to relation
Network data model
- The simple structure of a Hierarchical database became a disadvantage when the data had amore complex structure. In an order-processing database, for example, a single order mightparticipate in three different parent/child relationships, linking the order to the customer whoplaced it, the salesperson who took it, and the product ordered. The Network model extended the Hierarchical model by allowing a record to participate inmultiple parent/child relationshipNetwork databases had their disadvantages like Hierarchical database, they where very rigid. The set relationships and the structure of the records had to be specified in advance.
The Drawback of Network data model
- Changing the database structure typically required rebuilding the entire database.
Relational Model
Data is organized in terms of rows and columns in a table knowns as relations
 The position of a row in a table is of no importance.
 The intersection of row and column must give a single value and not a set of values.
Column name must be unique
2
 
Row must be unique
It eliminated the explicit parent/child structures from the database, and instead of represented all data in the database as simple row/column tables of data values.
A relational database is a database where all data visible to the user is organizedstrictly as tables of data values, and where all database operations work on thesetables. The publication of the paper “A relational Model of Data for Large Shared Database” by Dr.E.F. Codd in June 1970 in the “Communication of ACM” , set a trend for virgorous andextensive investigation into a theoretical frame work to support further work in the area of Data Modelling. The end result is the Relational Database Management System.
The 12 Rules for an RDBMS (Codd' s Rule)
Rule 1
: The information RuleAll Information is explicitly and logically represented in exactly one way i.e by data values intables.
Rule 2:
The rule of guaranteed accessEvery item of data must be logically addressable by resorting to a combination of a Tablename, Primary key and column name.
Rule 3
: The systematic treatment of null value This rule states that support for null values must be consistent throughout the DBMS, andindependent of the data type of the field.
Rule 4
: The Database Description RuleA description of the database is held and maintained using the same logical structures used todefine the data. This allows users to query such information in the same way and using thesame language, as they would do for any other data in the database.
Rule 5
: Comprehensive sub-language Rule There must be at least one language whose statements can be expressed as character stringsconfirming to some well-defined syntax, which is comprehensive in supporting the following:- Data definition, view Definition, Data Manipulation- Integrity Constraints- Authorization- Transaction BoundariesAll the above topics are manageable through Structural Query Language (SQL) statement.
Rule 6
: The view-updating RuleAll views that are theoretically updateable are also updated by the system.A view is a table is non-existent in its own right, but instead derived from one or more basetables.
Rule 7
: The High Level Insert, Update and Delete Rule The capability to handling a base relation, or infact a derived relation, as a single operandmust hold good for all retrieve, update, delete and insert activity. This means that the major DML commands, namely SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE and INSERTmust be available and operational on sets of rows in a relation.
Rule 8
: The physical independence Rule The user access to the database remains logically consistent even if the storagerepresentation is changed.
3

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