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Published by Arsalan Ahmed

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Published by: Arsalan Ahmed on Dec 26, 2012
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Oracle8 Backup
he two most important aspects of a DBA’s role are toarchitect an optimized Oracle8 database andequallyimportantensure that Oracle8 is always operational.Increasingly complex data-centric systems, operating in a 24-7environment, are implemented today. Each second with aninoperative database means lost revenue or even lost clientsin some cases. With the explosion of global Web business, the24-7 operational concept has been extended to 24-7-365system availability. A DBA needs to put procedures in placethat allow a system to operate with minimum downtime anddata loss.This chapter discusses the mechanisms and strategiesinvolved in backing up an Oracle8 database. In case ofdatabase corruption, instance failure, or even hardwarefailure, an Oracle8 backup strategy is crucial in restoring thedatabase system to its original state. Each backup strategyaddresses both what an enterprise regards as its minimumdowntime and the amount of data it can afford to lose.Chapter 17 covers the various methods of recovering adamaged database in great detail. The concepts describedhere are useful in understanding Chapter 17’s descriptions ofrecovery methods.
Oracle8 Backup
To understand Oracle8’s backup features and processes, youfirst need to understand the elements and concepts thatconstitute an Oracle8 backup process. These elements are theheart of the backup process. Your use of these elementsdictates what data can be restored or recovered in case of anOracle8 database failure or corruption.
3 3 3 3
In This Chapter
Reviewing theelements of anOracle8 backupExplaining Oracle8backupmethodologiesUsing the newOracle8 RecoveryManagerBacking up using theOracle8 Export utilityRestoring using theOracle8 Import utilityTaking advantage ofthe Oracle8 NTBackup ManagerRunning the Oracle8Operating SystemBackup ManagerEnsuring the integrityof database anddatabase filebackups
3 3 3 3
Chapter 16
Oracle8 Backup
Oracle8 backup elements and concepts
The Oracle8 backup elements and concepts are:
The Oracle8 Control File
The Online Redo Log
The Archived Redo Log
Oracle8 backup modes
The multiplexed filesEach following subsection describes one of these elements and concepts.
Control File
Control File
is a binary file used by Oracle8 to store its configuration parameters.The configuration parameters are required to start and manage a databaseinstance. Every Oracle8 database is associated with only one Control File. TheControl File reflects changes in a database’s configuration and also recordsinformation about the Oracle8 checkpoint process. At every occurrence of acheckpoint, the Control File remembers the next entry that must be entered intothe Online Redo Log. This information is used during database recovery andcommunicates to Oracle8 that all Redo Log Entries recorded before this point in theOnline Redo Log group are not necessary for database recovery. These entrieswould have already been written to their respective datafiles.An Oracle8 instance cannot be started without a Control File.In Chapter 17, the section entitled “Control File” has a detailed description of howthe Control File works.
The Online Redo Log
An Online Redo Log is also associated with every Oracle8 database instance. The
Online Redo Log
records Redo Log entries as they occur.
 Redo Log entries
are usedto reconstruct all changes made to the database. The Online Redo Log consists oftwo or more Oracle8 Online Redo Log files;at least one of these files is alwaysavailable for writing.In Chapter 17, the section entitled “The Online Redo Log File” tells about themakeup of the Online Redo Log File.Redo Log entries are stored in the Redo Log Buffer of the System Global Area(SGA) of an Oracle8 instance. Whenever a transaction is committed, the Oracle8Log Writer (LGWR) background process writes the committed transaction’s Redo
Chapter 16
Oracle8 Backup
Log entries from the Redo Log Buffer to the current Online Redo Log file. Redo Logentries can also be flushed to an Online Redo Log file when the Redo Log Buffersfill up.A
System Change Numbe
(SCN) is assigned to every Redo Log entry to identify thecommitted transactions.When the current Online Redo Log file fills up, the LGWR process starts writing theRedo entries into the next available Online Redo Log file. When the last availableLog file is filled, the LGWR process returns to the first Online Redo Log file andstarts writing to it again. This whole buffering and writing process is executed in acircular fashion.Chapter 4, section “Database Engine Programs” describes the LGRW process inmore detail.The contents of an Online Redo Log file should never be edited or altered.Figure 16-1 illustrates the process of writing Redo Log entries from the Redo Bufferto the Online Redo Log files.
Figure 16-1:
The Online Redo Log writing process
An Oracle8 instance
System global areaOracle8background processesRedobufferRedo entriesOnline redo logFile #1Online redo logFile #2Online redo logFile #3Online redo logFile #4Log writerprocess

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