Hermoupolite texts),consisted mainly ofIdumaeans and (to a lesser degree)Nabataeans,whose names,frequently theophoric,were translated fromSemitic into Greek in such a way that the Semitic origin ofthe names was notevident.The percentage ofnames thus concealed under a Greek dress as
- names,representing the theophoric name ofthe local god Kos,amounted to 13 per cent ofthe two inscriptions.
There were also muchsmaller numbers ofother persons:persons with genuine Macedonian,Illyrian,and Thracian names;persons with what he called ‘entwertete’,deval-ued,Macedonian names—that is,such names as
,which did not represent a corresponding authen-tic Macedonian racial element;persons with Egyptian names,with Greek-Egyptian names (such as
),and some with purely Semitic nameswithout the Apollo- theophoric element,names like
.Zucker did not discuss the Hermoupolite inscription that I wantlook at in the same way as he did his pair,because the names in it are pre-dominantly Greek,and it belongs to the later second century,
(seehis p.11 n.1).All the Hermoupolis garrison-inscriptions have now beenrepublished by Étienne Bernand,
and it is his text which is cited here;but hiscommentary lacks onomastic substance.Before we look at these names,there are some general points to be bornein mind.First,that when we assign a name exclusively to a speciﬁc region wemust have very good statistical reasons for doing so:that is,ifpossible,interms both ofbulk and ofuniqueness.Second,that people could have bothGreek and Egyptian names according to the circumstances in which theyfound themselves,and therefore that a Greek name might be borne by anEgyptian in the appropriate context.This latter point was brought out in aninteresting article by W.Clarysse some years ago,
which shows quite clearlythat in some cases in the late Ptolemaic period in Upper Egypt (notably Edfu
Apollinopolis Magna) a very small number ofpersons might have onenative name,recorded in demotic,and one Greek name,whether in transla-tion or transliteration,according to the ofﬁce they held in the local bureau-cracy,and it also seems that instances occur in which one person might havetwo tombstones,one inscribed with the name in demotic and one in Greek.This point is ofconsiderable interest in itself,but I do not think that it appliesto the list we are considering,or indeed to Zucker’s lists.The third point is a
Zucker also demonstrated that the city Apollonia was that listed by Stephanus as
Απολλωνα νν Ιππη
W.Clarysse,‘Greeks and Egyptians in the Ptolemaic army and administration’,
,Colloque Strasbourg (1967),127–41.
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