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Oil and Gas Production Handbook

Oil and Gas Production Handbook

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Published by dhakshu
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Production

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Published by: dhakshu on Dec 27, 2012
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OIL AND GASPRODUCTIONHANDBOOK
An introduction to oil and gas production
Håvard Devold
© 2006 ABB ATPA Oil and Gas

 
1
PREFACE
This handbook is has been compiled to give readers with an interested in the oil andgas production industry an overview of the main processes and equipment. When Istarted to search for a suitable introduction to be used for new engineers, Idiscovered that much of this equipment is described in standards, equipment manualsand project documentation. But little material was found to quickly give the readeran overview of the entire upstream area, while still preserving enough detail to let theengineer get an appreciation of the main characteristics and design issues.,This book is by no means a comprehensive description on the detailed design of anypart of this process, and many details have been omitted in the interest of overview. Ihave included some comments on the control issues, since that is part of my ownbackground. For the same reason, the description will be somewhat biased towardthe offshore installations.The material has been compiled form various online sources as well as ABB andcustomer documents. I am thankful to my colleagues in the industry for providingvaluable input, in particular Erik Solbu of Norsk Hydro for the Njord process andvaluable comments. I have included many photos to give the reader an impressionwhat typical facilities or equipment look like. Non-ABB photo source given belowpicture other pictures and illustrations are ABB.Edition 1.3 Oslo, June 2006Håvard Devold
©2006 ABB ATPA Oil and Gas
 
Except as otherwise indicated, all materials, including but not limited to design, text, graphics,other files, and the selection and arrangement thereof, are the copyright property of ABB, ALLRIGHTS RESERVED. You may electronically copy and print hard-copy of this document only fornon-commercial personal use, or non-commercial use within the organization that employs you,provided that the materials are not modified and all copyright or proprietary notices are retained.Use of photos and graphics and references form other sources in no way promotes or endorsesthese products and services and is for illustration only.
 
2
CONTENTS
 1
 
Introduction.......................................................................................................4
 
2
 
Process overview..............................................................................................6
 
2.1
 
Facilities..................................................................................................7
 
2.1.1
 
Onshore..........................................................................................8
 
2.1.2
 
Offshore.........................................................................................9
 
2.2
 
Main Process Sections...........................................................................12
 
2.2.1
 
Wellheads....................................................................................12
 
2.2.2
 
Manifolds/gathering.....................................................................12
 
2.2.3
 
Separation....................................................................................13
 
2.2.4
 
Gas compression..........................................................................14
 
2.2.5
 
Metering, storage and export.......................................................15
 
2.3
 
Utility systems.......................................................................................16
 
3
 
Reservoir and Wellheads................................................................................17
 
3.1
 
Crude oil and Natural gas......................................................................17
 
3.1.1
 
Crude Oil.....................................................................................17
 
3.1.2
 
Natural Gas..................................................................................18
 
3.1.3
 
Condensates.................................................................................19
 
3.2
 
The Reservoir........................................................................................19
 
3.3
 
Exploration and Drilling........................................................................21
 
3.4
 
The Well................................................................................................24
 
3.4.1
 
Well Casing.................................................................................25
 
3.4.2
 
Completion..................................................................................26
 
3.5
 
Wellhead...............................................................................................27
 
3.5.1
 
Subsea wells................................................................................29
 
3.5.2
 
Injection.......................................................................................30
 
3.6
 
Artificial Lift.........................................................................................30
 
3.6.1
 
Rod Pumps...................................................................................31
 
3.6.2
 
Downhole Pumps.........................................................................31
 
3.6.3
 
Gas Lift........................................................................................32
 
3.6.4
 
Plunger Lift..................................................................................33
 
3.7
 
Well workover, intervention and stimulation........................................33
 
3.8
 
Unconventional sources of oil and gas..................................................35
 
3.8.1
 
Extra Heavy Crude......................................................................35
 
3.8.2
 
Tar sands......................................................................................36
 
3.8.3
 
Oil Shale......................................................................................36
 
3.8.4
 
Coal, Coal Gasification and Liquefaction....................................37
 
3.8.5
 
Methane Hydrates........................................................................37
 
3.8.6
 
Biofuels........................................................................................38
 
3.8.7
 
Hydrogen.....................................................................................38
 
4
 
The Oil and Gas Process.................................................................................40
 
4.1
 
Manifolds and Gathering.......................................................................42
 

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