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The Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments

The Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments

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Published by T4urus-Vega
A great book about do-it-yourself chemistry experiments.
A great book about do-it-yourself chemistry experiments.

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Published by: T4urus-Vega on Dec 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/31/2013

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THE
GOLDENBOOK
OF
CheJm:ll.s1try
Exper:ll.Jmen1ts
How
toSetUpaHome
Laboratory-
Over200SimpleExperiments
BY
ROBERT
BRE
NT
ILL
USTRAT
ED
BY
HARRY
LAZARUS
~ ~
-
.
~
.
-
.
,-
~
-
.,
...
""
GOLDEN
PRESS
~
NEW
YORK
 
~ r
J
s
Used
by
Chem.:l
sts
Add,
8
h ~
·
d
r o
g
e r J
. - e
o
n t
8
i
n
i
ng
com
pou
nd
thatreleasesh
yd
rogenionsinsolution.
AlIo}-,amaterialmade
up
0)"c
ombining
two
or
moremetals.
. - \
n a l }
· ~
i
" ,
break
ingdownacompound into
1"'-0
ormoresubstances.
Anh
)
'drou
s,freeCromwater.
Atom
:thesmallestunitorancle
men
t
that
Ca
ll
enterinto
th
em
ak
ingofa
chemicalcompound.
Atomicweight
:
th
eweight
ofan
atom
com
paredwiththeweig
ht
ofanoxygen atomset
at
16.
Ba"e:
acompoundcontainingthehy
droxidegroup(O
H)
.
Catal
p;!:asubs
ta
nceth
at
help
sina
chemic
al
reactionw
it
hout
it
.-;e
Ir
being
changed.
Chemical
chan
ge:ac
ha
ngeofasu
b
sta
ncei
nt
o
ano
thersubs
ta
nce
ha
ving
differentpro
pert
ies.
Ch
em
hlr
)
':
II
bran
chofsciencedealing
withthecompositionsofsubstancesand
the
cha
ngesth
at
c
an
bem
ad
ein
them.
Comb
us
tion:
bu
rni
ng;
a
che
mic
alchange
th
at
p
rodu
cesbeatandlight.
Co
m
po
uml,asubstanceco
nsis
tingof twoorm
ore
diff
er
ent
kindsof
at
om
sindefinite
proporti
onsb)'wei
gh!.
Cry
·.st
al:
asolidinwhichat
om
s
or
molecules
are
arrangedinadefinitepatt
ern
,
Den
sit
y,theweightofaliquidora solid
in
gramspercm
S
ormilliliter. Di
still
ate
:a
liqui
dth
at
hasbeen
tu
rnedinto,-
apo
rand
aga
incooledin
to
ali
quid.
Di
stillation
:thep
roce
ssofpro
du
cingadi
still
at
e.
Ductile:
ca
pa
bleofbeing
dr
a
wn
ou
t
into
awire.
Ele
ct
rol
y
si
s,
br
e
akin
gdownasubst
anc
eb)'passing
an
el
ectri
cc
ur
ren
t
thr
oughit.
Ele
cteofyte
sas
ubs
tancethat,whenin asolutionorwhenm
elte
d,
will
con
du
ct
an
elec
tri
ccurrent.
Element
:asubsta
nce
thatcontains
onl
yonekindofatoms.
Equation'
ac
omplet
edescriptionofa che
mic
alreadionhytheuscof
s
ymbol
s,
fo
rmul
as,andsigns.
E,'aporati
on:
th
ec
ha
ngingofasub
sta
nce
int
o
vepo
r,also
th
e
pr
ocess
of
rc
movi
ng
wa
terb)
'healing. F
iltrate
:a
liquid
ob
ta
inedb)'fi
ltrat
ion.
Filtration:
th
eprocess
of
st
rai
ninga
liquid
fromasolidt
hro
ughporous
mate
rial
,
u
suall
y
filterpaper.
Formul
a:agroupofsymbolsandnum
bers
givingthe
composi
tionofa
com
poun
d.1I)
'dr
ate
:a
compou
ndcontaining
loosely
boundwaterof
hydrat
ion(waterof
cr
yst
all
iz
ati
on
)
that
c
an
be
dri
ven
off
b)"
he
at
ing.
H)·dro
."ide
;a
com
p
ou
nd
that
conta
ins
thehydr
oxyl
(OH)
ra
dical.
Ion
:an
elec
tric
ally
c
ha
rge
d
atom
orgroupofatoms(radical). .'\l
alle
ahle
:ca
pable
ofbeingh
am
meredorrolledintoa
thi
n
sheet.
-'latter:
an)-tiIingt
hat
ta
keslipspace andhas
w
eig
ht
.
-'Ictal:
anelementthatisa
good
conductorofclectri"it)-.hilSluster,and w
hose
oxide
Co
rmsabasewi
th
water, --'t
etalluid:
anelem
ent
thathasp
rope
r
t
i
~ , ;
ofbo
th
met
alsandno
nm
etals.
:\lhtllre
:aminglingofsubsta
nce
snotco
mb
inedch
emic
all
y.
-'I
olecular
w e
i ~ h t :
thesumof
th
eatomic
...-
eightsoftheatoms
tha
t
make
up
amoleculeof
6
compound.
:\Iole
cul
c:
th
esmallestunitofacom
pound
thatc
aa
ex
ist
in
th
eCreestate.
::Ii"
eutrali
2ation:
thereactionof
an
acida
nd
abase
to
givea
salt
andwa
te
r.
Xonmctab
anelementth
at
isa
poor
c
ondu
c
to
rofelectricity,
doe
snot
have
luster,andwhose
oxide
formsanacid whenc
omb
inedwithwater.
Organic
chemi
str
y:
the
cher
nis
fry
ufthe
carbon
compounds. O."
id
"t
i
un:
the
pr
oce
ss
h)"
which8sub_ stancecombineswi
th
oxygen.
P
re
cipitat
e:aninsol
ubl
esolidCormed inasolutionb)'chemicalr
ea
cti
on.R
adical:
agro
up
ofatomsthatbeha'-e
che
micallyasasingle
ato
m.
Re
a
ction:
achemical
c
ha
nge.
Redu
cti
on:
removal
of
oxygen:
the
op
po
slteof
oxi
da
t
ion
.Sa
lt
:compound(otherthanwa
te
r)
Icrrned
b)'thereactionofanacidand
abase.
Saturatedsolution:a
solution
th
at
containsthemaxi
mu
mamou
nt
orsolu
te
und
er
the
conditions.
So
ilib
ili
t)
·:
thenu
mbe
r
or
gr
amsofa soluteneededtomake
II
saturated
so
lution
in
100
gram
sof
solvent,
Solute:
tb
esubs
ta
nce
dissolved
inasolven
t.
S
oluti
on:
a
non-set
tlingm
ixtur
eofa
solute
inasoh'ent. Sohent:aliquidinwhichasoluteis d
is.."O
h-cd.Suhlimation:aprocessbywhicha
!'O
J
illist
urne
dintovaporand8
1?
aincooled i
nt
oasolidwi
th
outpas
sin
g
thro
ugha liquidst
age.
Subs
cri
pt:as
ma
llnume
ra
li
ndi
c
atin
gthenumberof
ato
msofac
ert
ainelement inthef
ormula
ofa
compo
und.Su
bs
ta
nc
e:
an
yspecificki
nd
ofm
aH
erwhetherele
me
nt,t'Ompound,ormix
tu
re.Spn
hu
l:al
etter
ortwole
tters
rep
resent
ing
onea
tom
ofancleme
nt.
S)'
lIth
esi;;:the
mak
ingupofacom
poun
dfromsimplerco
mpo
undsorfrom el
emen
ts;theo
ppo
siteof
an
alysis. V
alen
ce
:thenu
mber
ofhydrogenat
om
swhichoneatomofanelementc
an
displace
oc
wit
hwhichit
can
unite.
2
co
pper
o
lin

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