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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1 — The Teradata Architecture
The Parsing Engine
The AMPs
Born to be Parallel
The BYNET
A Scalable Architecture
Logical Modeling – Primary and Foreign Keys
Physical Modeling - The Primary Index
Two Types of Primary Indexes (UPI or NUPI)
Unique Primary Index (UPI)
Non-Unique Primary Index (NUPI)
Multi-Column Primary Indexes
When do you define the Primary Index?
Defining a Non-Unique Primary Index (NUPI)
Defining a Multi-Column Primary Index
How Teradata Distributes and Retrieves Rows
Hashing the Primary Index Value
The Hash Map
An 8-AMP Hash Map Example
Laying a Row onto the Proper AMP
Retrieving a Row by way of the Primary Index
Hashing Non-Unique Primary Indexes (NUPI)
Placing Non-Unique Primary Indexes (NUPI) Rows
Placing (NUPI) Rows Continued
Retrieving (NUPI) Rows
Placing Multi-Column Primary Index Rows
Retrieving Multi-Column Primary Index Rows
Even Distribution with an UPI
Uneven Distribution with a NUPI
Unacceptable Distribution with a NUPI
Review – Parsing Engines Plan with an UPI
Review – Parsing Engines Plan with a NUPI
Review – Big Trouble – The Full Table Scan
Big Trouble – A Picture of a Full Table Scan
Test your Teradata Primary Index Knowledge
The Row Hash
The Uniqueness Value
The Row ID
Duplicates and the Uniqueness Value
AMPs Sort Their Rows by the Row ID
Search the Data like a Phone Book
Why is my Phone Book 00000’s and 111111’s?
Performing a Binary Search
Opening the Phone Book to the Middle
I can Name that Tune in 5 Notes
A Visual for Data Layout
Test Your Teradata Access Query Knowledge
UPI Row-ID Test
NUPI Row-ID Test
Secondary Indexes
Creating a Unique Secondary Index (USI)
The Secondary Index Subtable
Inside the Secondary Index Subtable
How Teradata builds the Secondary Index Subtable
How Teradata builds the Secondary Index
Building the Secondary Index Subtable
USI – Always a Two-AMP Operation
The Parsing Engines Plan with an USI Query
Retrieving Base Rows using the USI
Picture that USI in Action
USI Summary
USI Pictorial using the Hash Maps
USI Secondary Index Quiz
USI Secondary and Primary Index Quiz Answers
A Full Table Scan Example
The Base Table
Creating a Non-Unique Secondary Index (NUSI)
Columns inside a NUSI Secondary Index Subtable
NUSI Subtable is AMP-Local
NUSI Recap
Secondary Index Summary
An Incredible Quiz Opportunity
A Table used for our Partitioning Example
Range Queries
Why we had to perform a Full Table Scan
One Year of Orders Partitioned
Fundamentals of Partitioning
Add the Partition to the Row-ID for the Row Key
You Partition a Table when you CREATE the Table
RANGE_N Partitioning by Week
RANGE_N Partitioning Older and Newer Data
Case_N Partitioning
Multi-Level Partitioning
Partitioning Rules
See the data
Test Your Teradata Access Knowledge
The most Powerful USER
DBC owns all the Disk Space
DBC Example of 1000 GBs
DBC will first CREATE a USER or a DATABASE
Teradata is Hierarchical
Only two Objects can Receive PERM Space
Only difference between a User and a Database
A Typical approach to Security
Example of a DATABASE and USER Interchanged
PERM and SPOOL Space
Each AMP will have PERM and SPOOL
A Query using both PERM and SPOOL Space
Spool is Deleted when the Query is Done
Getting a better understanding of Spool
Answering the MRKT Spool Query Answer
Spool is like a Speed Limit
All Space is calculated on a Per AMP Basis
Examples of Perm and Spool on a Per AMP Basis
Quiz on Perm and Spool Space
Answers to Quiz on Perm and Spool Space
Collecting Statistics
Parsing Engine uses Statistics for the Plan
Columns and Indexes to Collect Statistics On
Syntax to Collect Statistics
Recollecting Statistics
Random Sample instead of Collected Statistics
V12 Statistics Enhancement – Stale Statistics
Where Statistics are Stored in DBC
A Collect Statistics Example
What Statistics are Really Collected
Loner Values and High Bias Intervals
Teradata Limits
Data Protection
Transaction Concept
Two Modes to Teradata
Differences between ANSI and Teradata Mode
ANSI Mode Commit
Teradata Mode Commit also called BTET
Trick to CREATE a Multi-Statement with BTEQ
Transient Journal
How the Transient Journal Works
The Transient Journal after a Commit
VProcs
Nodes and MPP
RAID 1 - Mirroring
Cliques
VProcs Migrate when a Node Fails
FALLBACK Protection
How Fallback Works
Fallback Clusters Exercise
Fallback Clusters
Fallback Exercises with Clusters
Fallback Exercises with Clusters Answer
More Fallback Exercises
More Fallback Exercises with Answers
Fallback – Performance Vs Protection Questions
The Six Rules of Fallback
Cliques and Clusters
Cliques and Clusters Answers
Down AMP Recovery Journal (DARJ)
Permanent Journal
Table create with Fallback and Permanent Journal
Permanent Journal Rules
Some Permanent Journal Possibilities
Creating a Permanent Journal
Create Table Examples with Permanent Journals
Each Permanent Journal is made up of 3 Areas
The Four Locks of Teradata
Teradata has 3 levels of Locking
Quiz – Which Level of Locking is Occurring?
A Single AMP Acts as the Locking Gatekeeper
Every AMP performs Locking Gatekeeper Duties
Answers to Which AMP is Waiting on Access
Explains – The Pseudo Table for Locks
The NOWAIT Locking Option
Rules of Teradata Locking
Explains – Psuedo Tables
Explain – Full Table Scan
Explain – Primary Index Reads
Explain – Secondary Index Read
Explain - View DDL of a Partitioned Table
Explain – Partition Elimination
Explain – Joins with Duplication on all AMPs
Explain – Joins with Redistribution
Explain – Bit Mapping with multiple NUSIs
Fundamentals of Teradata Joins
A Join Example
Joins and the Primary Index
Redistributing Rows in Spool
Redistributing Rows of Both Tables
Duplicating the Smaller Table
Quiz – How Many Rows are in Spool?
Quiz Answer – How Many Rows in Spool?
How Duplication Appears on Every AMP
How Many Rows in Spool with Redistribution?
Answer to How Many Rows in Spool
An Example of an AMP with Redistribution
The System Calendar
Columns in the System Calendar Views
Volatile Tables
How to Populate a Volatile Table
Global Temporary Tables
A Pictorial of a Global Temporary Table
What Happens to Global Tables after the Session
Global Temporary Tables and Temp Space
V13 – No Primary Index Tables
NoPI CREATE Statement
NoPI Row-ID Increments the Uniqueness Value
NoPI Row-Hash Different on each AMP
NoPI Options and Facts
NoPI Restrictions
Write Ahead Logging (WAL)
AMPs have FSG Cache for the Memories
An Example of an UPDATE Statements
AMP Local WALs
AMPs UPDATE Rows in FSG Cache
Write to WAL then Write Back to Disk
The WAL Depot
Clearing out the Wal Depot and the Wal Log
V13 – Teradata Virtual Storage (TVS)
AMPs in the 1980’s
AMPs in the 1990’s
Data Blocks and Cylinders make up a Disk
Cylinders are dedicated to Perm, Spool, etc
Outside Disk Tracks are much Faster
AMPs assigned Disk Cylinders, not Entire Disks
Hot, Warm, and Cold Data
The old way Teradata had to add Disk Space
Doubling the Disk Capacity
Incremental Disk Growth Is Here
Mixed Disks and Solid State Drives
Solid State Drives are like Giant Flash Drives
Virtual Storage Metrics
The Two Modes of Virtual Storage
What is a Row Hash Lock?
Chapter 6 — Loading the Data
FastLoad
Multiload
TPump
FastExport
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Mastering Teradata

Mastering Teradata

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Published by: Lakshminarayana Sama on Dec 27, 2012
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