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arun hj

arun hj

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Published by Mukesh Waran

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Published by: Mukesh Waran on Dec 27, 2012
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36
Unit 4: Basic CAD Drawing Techniques
Overview 
Most architectural drawings use architectural units. You will first learn how to set architecturalunits and precision of units commonly used in architectural CAD drawings. Then you will setup a template drawing. This template drawing will be used in later units to speed up and stan-dardize the drawing process.
Objectives
Set the architectural display format and precision.
Create template drawings for C and D size paper.
Begin a new drawing by using the template drawing.
Create geometry for a architectural drawing using the coordinate system of data entry.
Introduction
Most architectural drawings use the architectural type of scale displaying measurements infeet and inches, such as 16’-2”. Even though you will set your units to architectural, AutoCADallows you to use any type of units in your drawing. If it is more convenient to enter informa-tion in decimal, for example, you can change your units at any time. Changing units or enter-ing units in a different format will not affect any other objects in the drawing. A template drawing normally contains values for limits, grid, and snap. After setting the cor-rect units, you will create a template drawing containing the values for limits, grid, and snapcommonly used in a D size architectural drawing.
Section 1: Setting Display Format and Precision (UNITS and DDUNITS)
To set the units, access the Units Control dialog box. This can be accomplished by::
Choose the Format/Units pull-down menu.
Enter 
ddunits
at the
Command:
prompt. Although AutoCAD has five different measurement report formats, architectural units are gen-erally used in architectural drafting, as recommended by the American Institute of Architects. AutoCAD can display a maximum of 1/256”. Since decimal is the default type of unit in Auto-CAD, you will have to change the units to architectural using the Units Control dialog box.
 
37 After setting the measurement report format to architectural units, the next step is to set thedisplay precision. AutoCAD rounds the value of the display to the nearest fraction of an inch.For example, if you set the precision at 1/2” and your actual measurement was set to 3/8”, thedisplay will read 1/2”. Regardless of what you set the display precision at, AutoCAD is accu-rate to 14 decimal places. For architectural drawings, 1/2”, 1/4”, 1/8”, and 1/16” precision arenormally used, depending on the type of drawing.
 Angular Measurement 
 Angular measurement is also set in the Units Control dialog box. AutoCAD has five differentangular measurement options. Decimal degrees are generally used in architectural drafting,and so decimal degrees is the default type of angular measurement in AutoCAD.Decimal degrees displays angular measurement as real numbers with up to eight decimalplaces, such as 42.500. One-place decimal degrees are normally used for architectural draw-ings.
Tutorial 4.1: Setting Units and Angular Measurement
In this tutorial you will set the units and angular measurement for a architectural drawing.1. From the Standard toolbar, select New. If prompted with the Save Changes dialog box,select No. In the Create New Drawing dialog box, enter the proper path, name the draw-ing DPROTO, then select OK.2. Choose Format/Units.Set the units to Architectural, 01’-0 1/2” for Precision.Set the angles to Decimal Degrees, Precision 0 (AutoCAD default).Your Units Control dialog box should look like figure 4.1.3. Choose OK to close the Units Controldialog box. The next tutorial will continuefrom here.
Figure 4.1
 
The units and angular measure-ment for an architectural drawing.
 
 
38
Section 2: Working with Template Drawings
 A template drawing may be defined as any drawing file that you want to use as the basis for the new drawing you are creating. Proper use of a template drawing can save a lot of work.When you begin a new drawing you normally set different variables, such as the limits, snapincrement, and grid spacing. The advantage of using a template drawing is that it frees youfrom having to change these settings every time you start a new drawing.
Tutorial 4.2: Creating an Architectural Template for a D Size Drawing
In this tutorial you will create an architectural template drawing. You will set the limits, grid,and snap to values commonly used in a D size drawing. When entering values, AutoCADautomatically assumes that you are entering a value in feet, unless you specify inches after the number.1. Continue from the previous tutorial. Choose Format/Drawing Limits.3. At the
[ON/OFF]<0’-0”,0’-0”>:
prompt, press Enter.4. At the
<1’-0”,0’-9”>:
prompt, type
136’,88’
and press Enter.To show the entire limits within the view window, choose the ZOOM ALL option:1. From the Standard toolbar, choose the Zoom All icon. After the limits are established, set the grid to 4’ and the snap to 2’.2. Choose Tools/Drafting Setting to access the Drafting Settings dialog box.Enter 
4’
for the grid X and Y spacing.Enter 
2’
for the snap X and Y spacing.3. Check the Snap On and Grid On check boxes. Your dialog box should appear as shownin figure 4.2.4. The DPROTO template file is now ready to be saved. To save the drawing, click theSAVE icon on the Standard toolbar. In the Save as Type box make sure you change thefile extension to DWT and make sure you are in the correct subdirectory.

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